Caused by BacteriaBacteria are classified as “spore forming” and “non spore forming”Spore – enables a cell to survive environmental stress such as cooking,Freezing, high salt condition, drying and high acid condition. Spore forming bacteria are found in foods that are grown in soil and animal products.
1) Botulism *spore formingBacteria : Clostridium Botulinum Anaerobic bacteria Organism produce a neurotoxin, deadly biological toxin to man
Type of illness: Bacterial intoxicationSymptoms : Dizziness , double vision, difficulty in breathing and swallowingOnset time :12-36 hrs.Food Sources : Improperly canned foods, vacuum packed, Refrigerated foodsPrevention : Discard bulging cans , Do not use home canned foods Do not mix and store oil and garlic Saute onion as needed Don’t store left over potatoes in a foil
2. CampylobacteriosisBacteria : Campylobacter JejuniIt requires a very strict amount of air for growth (microaerophilic)
Type of Illness : bacterial infectionSymptoms : watery, bloody diarrhea , fever, nausea, vomitting, abdominal pain, headache , muscle painOnset time: 7-10 daysFood Sources : Unpasteurized milk, raw poultry, beef fecal contaminated waterPrevention : Personal hygiene,• Follow hand washing guidelines• Avoid cross contamination• Cook all meat• Maintain good pest control• Use pasteurized dairy products• Use safe water
3. E- Coli InfectionBacteria : Escherichia coli Produce Shiga Toxin , a poisonous substance Facultative anaerobic bacteriaType of Illness : Bacterial InfectionOnset time : 3-8 daysSymptoms : Bloody diarrhea followed by kidney failure Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
Food Sources : undercooked ground beef * Unpasteurized apple juice * undercooked fruits & vegetables * Raw milk, dairy productsPrevention Good personal hygiene Avoid cross contamination Cook all poultry, meat carefully Use pasteurized milk and dairy products Wash all fresh fruits & vegetables in a clean running water
4. ListeriosisBacteria : Listeria Monocytogenes Facultative anaerobic bacteria, ability to survive in high salt foods, and can grow at refrigerated temperature.Type of Illness : Bacterial InfectionOnset time : 3- 7 daysSymptoms : headache, stiff neck, confusion, loss of balance, convulsion, dangerous for pregnant women (result to premature delivery, fetal death)
Food Sources• raw milk, meat refrigerated ready to eat foods processed foods (hotdogs, deli meats, luncheon meats) soft cheesesPrevention Good personal hygiene Avoid cross contamination cook all meat, poultry carefully Use pasteurized milk, milk products Wash all fruits & vegetables in a clean running water Clean & sanitized utensils & equipment
5. Perfringens foodborne illnessBacteria : Clostridium perfringens Microaerophilic bacteriaType of Illness Bacterial toxin mediated infectionOnset time : ( 8- 22 hrs.)Symptoms : Severe abdominal cramps severe diarrhea
Food Sources cafeteria germs spices, gravy improperly cooled foods foods not cooked to the right temperaturePrevention Good personal hygiene Avoid cross contamination Cook all meat carefully
`Type of Illness : Bacterial infectionSymptoms : stomach cramps, diarrhea, head ache, nausea fever, vomittingFood Sources contaminated by soil, insects, intestinal waste of animals raw meat, fish, eggs, raw salad dressing, cake mixes, sliced fruits & vegetables dried gelatin, peanut butterPrevention Good personal hygiene Avoid cross contamination Cook all meat carefully
7. ShigellosisBacteria : Shigella bacteria Facultative anaerobic bacteria Comes from human intestines, polluted water, spread by flies and food handlersType of Illness : Bacterial infectionSymptomsDiarrhea,fever,Abdominalcramps,dehydration
Food Sources : foods that are prepared by human contacts salads, ready to eat meats pasta salads, lettuce moist foodsPrevention Good personal hygiene Avoid cross contamination Use clean water control flies cook foods properly
8. Staphylococcal illnessBacteria : Staphylococcus aureus Facultative anaerobic bacteria. Can grow in cooked or safe foods that are recontaminated Commonly found in human skin, hands, hair, nose and throat. Carrier are healthy and unhealthy people Can grow in high salt or high sugar, and lower water activity
Type of Illness : Bacterial intoxicationSymptoms : nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, headaches Food Sources Foods that are prepared by human contacts Left overs, meat, eggs, egg products, potato salad, salad dressings
Prevention Good hygiene Avoid cross contamination Cover a burn or cut wounds wear a disposable gloves when preparing foods cook foods thoroughly
The viruses foodborne disease differ from bacteria:2) They can only multiply inside the living host3) Viruses do not multiply in foods.4) Viruses are usually transferred from one food to another.5) From a food handler to food and water6) A potentially hazardous food is not needed to support survival of virus
1) HEPATITIS AVirus: Hepto Virus or a Hepatitis A virus• Found in human intestinal and urinary tract and contaminated waterSymptoms: fever, fatigue, headache, nausea, loss of appetite, stomach pain, vomiting, “jaundice”• Incubation time: 2-10 months after contaminated food and water is consumed
Food sources :2) Raw and lightly cooked oyster and clams harvested from polluted water3) Raw vegetables irrigated and washed in polluted water4) Potentially hazardous food handled by a person infected with hepa A that needed no further cooking
Prevention:2. Handle foods properly3. Cook the at recommended temperature4. Avoid eating raw seafoods5. Food handlers must practice good personal hygiene6. Wash hands and fingernails properly
2. Norwalk VirusVirus: Norwalk virusSymptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, headache, low grade feverFood Sources: contaminated water, shellfish from contaminated water, contaminated fruits and vegetablesPrevention : Cook foods to a proper temperature, practice good personal hygiene, wash hands and fingernails
3. ROTAVIRUS• Cause diseases like rota virus gastroenteritis• It is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among infants and children.Symptoms: vomiting, low grade fever, watery diarrheaTransmission : person to person spread through contaminated handsPrevention : Cook foods properly, practice good personal hygiene
PARASITES• Parasite is a biological hazard. They need a living host to survive. Parasites can enter a food system and can cause foodborne illnesses
1) ANISAKIS• Anisakis spp. Are nematodes (roundworm)Associated with food borne infection from fish.• Anisakis is about 1- 1 ½ inches long and a diameter of human hair.• They are beige, ivory, white, gray, brown or pink.
Symptoms:• Vomiting, abdominal pain if the worm is attached to the stomach• Coughing if the worm is attached to the throat• Sharp pain, fever if the worm is attached to the large intestines
Food Sources:2. Raw undercooked seafoods3. Bottom feeding fish (cod, salmon, herring, flounder)Human are accidental host upon eating fish infested with parasitePrevention: cook seafoods at proper temperature
2. CYCLOSPORIASISParasite : Cyclospora cayetanisisSymptoms: infections that infect the small intestines3. Watery diarrhea4. Loss of appetite5. Bloating6. Stomach cramps7. Nausea8. Vomiting9. Low grade fever
Food Sources:Berries, lettuce, fresh herbs3. GiardiasisParasite: Giardia doudenalis• A single cell microorganism called “protozoa”Smptoms:• diarrhea, stomach cramps, nauseaFood Sources: undercooked pork
4. TrichonosisParasite: Trichiniella spiralis• This parasite looks like a small, hairy round wormSymptoms:5. nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain6. Later stage are fever, swelling of tissues around the eyes, muscle stiffness7. Death
Food Sources:2. Undercooked pork and sausages3. Ground meats contaminated through meat grinders
Caused by Fungi• Molds, yeast and other fungi cause food spoilage2) Molds - individual mold cells are microscopic, they grew quickly and they become visible- Molds spoil foods, causing discoloration, and unpleasant smell
• Molds grow in any conditions ( moist, dry, acidic, salty, sweet, cold, warm)• Mold produce toxins, some of which relate to cancer and cause allergies• Aflatoxin can cause liver disease• Molds can be used to make cheese such as Brie, Camembert, Gorgonzola, Bleu cheese• Although the cells and spores can be killed by heating to 140°F for 10 minutes, the toxins are heat stable and are not destroyed
2. Yeast• Like molds, yeast can cause food spoilage• Foods such as jellies, honey, syrup, fruit juices are most likely loved by yeast• Evidence of bubbles, and alcoholic smell or taste are the sign where foods have the presence of yeast• Discard any foods that has the evidence of yeast
Case Study # 1A day care center is serving a stir fried rice for lunch. Prior to preparation , the cook empty the trash. Then he began cooking the rice. The rice was cooled at the proper temperature. The covered rice was then placed at the table and allowed to cool at the room temperature at 1:00 PM. The cook placed it in the refrigerator at 6 pm. The ff. day, at 9 am , the rice was combined with other ingredients for stir fried rice.
And cooked for 74°C for 15 seconds. The cook covered the rice and left it on the range she covered it gently and reheat it again. After serving the rice with in an hour, several children began vomiting and had few diarrhea.Based on the formation, was the illness cause by what1) Pathogens? ( 2 pts) - bacteria2) Based on the following symptoms what is the possible foodborne illness of the children? ( 2 pts.) - Perfringen3) Give 3 conditions why the food was contaminated? ( 3 pts. ) - Cross contamination (by hand) - Time abuse - Temperature abuse4) As a future manager, come up 3 plans on how to prevent foodborne illnesses. ( 3 pts. )
1) Bacteria2) Time , temperature abuse3) Not cooked at the proper temperature and not cooked at the proper time4) The food was improperly cooled the second time
Case # 2Mang Erning is a cook of a local restaurant.With 10 yrs. Of experience in cooking, his restaurant became a well known to the local municipality. Until a group of people experienced headache, stiff neck, confusion loss of balance, and convulsion. They have the food analyzed and they found out that the food that was contaminated were hotdogs and deli foods. The meat that they ate was also not been cooked properly.After that incident Mang Erning’s restaurant was temporarily closed by the local govenrmentGive the name of the possible illness and the name of the possible bacteria infected the group of people. (10 pts.)ListeriosisListeria Monocytogenes
Plans:2)Exercise good personal hygiene among employees3)Prepare foods and cook it right away4)Cook foods at the proper temperature
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