Introduce topic by explaining that food safety is the responsibility of everyone who works in foodservice. (page 51) Call on several participants to describe some aspect of their job that has an impact on food safety.
The term “food-safe” is used to mean a facility that is clean and in good repair. This includes both the work areas and the equipment. The facility design should be designed for easy cleaning and maintenance as well. Refer to page 54-56 in handout. Divide participants into groups of 4 or 5 people. Assign a standard to each group. Ask them to describe the characteristic os a food-safe facility for their assigned standard. Assign a group leader to report results to entire group. Summary: It is important to eliminate hard-to-clean work areas and get rid of dirty surroundings. Remember - the easier the workplace is to clean, the more likely it will stay that way.
There are 2 methods of sanitizing: 1. Chemical 2. Heat There are 2 types of sanitizing methods used in food service: Heat sanitizing involves exposing equipment to high heat for an adequate length of time. 2. Chemical sanitizing is accomplished by immersing or wiping an object with a sanitizing solution and allowing the solution to remain on the surface for the specified amount of time. Ask participants: What type of sanitizing do you use in your operation? Review the characteristics and requirements of each as they are presented. Fill in the void with the remaining types. NOTE: A household bleach can be used as a sanitizer only if the label indicates it is EPA registered. Never use scented or oxygen bleaches. Refer to page 58 for “Rule-of-Thumb Mixtures” but stress that a test kit is the only sure way to determine concentration of sanitizing solution.
Let’s look at the 2 methods of heat sanitizing. Manually – immersing equipment into water maintained at a temperature of 171° to 195° F for at least 30 seconds. Dishwashing machine – rule of thumb is to wash at 150° F and rinse at 180°F; temperature may vary depending on type of machine and local Health Department codes Use thermometers and heat-sensitive tapes to determine if adequate sanitation temperatures have been achieved. Ask participants: Are you using any of these methods of sanitizing in your operation?
These are the most common chemical sanitizers. Chlorine most commonly used and is the least expensive effective in hard water inactivated by water above 120°F organic matter causes chlorine to become ineffective must be tested regularly and changed as needed too much chlorine can pit stainless steel and aluminum surfaces household bleach – can be used only if the label indicates it is EPA registered (show label samples) 2. Iodine more expensive and not as effective as chlorine food particles does not make inactive as quickly as chlorine is brown color so can easily see that it is being used 3. Quats not as quickly inactivated by food particles as chlorine non-corrosive to metals nonirritating to skin Use a test kit designed for the chemical you have selected. The foodservice supplier of the chemical may have the test kits as well. Remember: When a sanitizing solution is exposed to air, detergent, and food particles, the solution becomes less effective. Sanitizing solutions should be tested frequently.
Refer participants to page 59 in handout for manually sanitizing smallwares in a 3-compartment sink. Review the procedures stressing time and temperatures.
The temperature may vary depending on type of dishwashing machine and local Health Department codes. Most dishwashing machines have thermometers but it is useful to confirm the accuracy of the dishwasher thermometer gauges. 2 types of thermometers: Waterproof maximum/minimum-registering thermometer: placed on dish rack to go through dishwasher cycle. It is set to record the highest and lowest temperatures. Self-adhering temperature-sensitive labels: attaches to a tray and goes through dishwashing cycle; changes color if temperatures are correct; label can be removed from tray and placed on log to document correct temperatures
All equipment should be kept clean and sanitized. Step 1: Unplug electrically powered equipment Step 2: Remove loose food particles and scraps Step 3: Wash, rinse, and sanitize any removable parts using the manual immersion method Step 4: Wash the remaining food-contact surfaces and rinse with clean water. Wipe down with a chemical sanitizing solution. Step 5: Clean surfaces that do not come in contact with food using a clean wiping cloth. Allow all parts to air dry before re-assembling. Clean the wiping cloth before and during use by rinsing in a sanitizing solution. Step 6: Re-sanitize the external food-contact surfaces of the parts that were touched when the equipment was re-assembled.
Who is responsible for food safety? It’s everyone’s business. Managers: Know requirements for maintaining a sanitary operation Establish standard procedures for cleaning specific areas of the facility Teach & coach employees how to maintain a sanitary facility Use daily, weekly, and monthly cleaning schedule and hold employees responsible for cleaning & sanitizing assigned areas Have routine inspections Employees: Follow standard procedures for cleaning & sanitizing assigned areas Ask manager for help if needed Both can take pride in operating a clean & sanitary foodservice operation.
Refer participants to page 92 at the end of in the handout for Chapter 4. Ask each participant to describe how they will use what has been learned. Answer the questions. As they are doing this, have each person select ½ of a playing card. Then have them pair up and share their answers with one another. Ask them to return to their seats. Ask for volunteers to share their answers.
Manages and employees must understand what needs to be done at each step of the foodservice process to keep food safe. This chapter provides guidelines for insuring food safety from the beginning of the process at purchasing the food to the last step of reheating it… from the back door to the trash can.
These are the 8 steps of the foodservice process. In this chapter we will look at the guidelines that can be used to implement a food safety program in your operation.
The goal of purchasing is to obtain wholesome, safe foods to meet menu requirements. The job of the person responsible for purchsing is to choose the vendors wisely. Guidelines for vendors: Meet federal & state health standards – what are some of these standards? clean delivery trucks with adequate refrigeration & freezer units deliver foods at correct temperatures (story: milk delivery at time of Health Dept inspection) organize deliveries to separate raw products from processed foods and produce deliver foods in protective, leak-proof, durable packaging 2. Use standardized procedures for food sanitation in their operations. written policy/procedures on handling returns/recalls related to food safety 3. Train employees in sanitation Can you think of other food safety responsibilities of the vendor?
Guidelines for the Purchaser: Work with vendor to establish a reasonable food delivery schedule for each site. Tell the vendor what is expected Request vendor to provide a copy of the standardized procedures for food safety Include food safety standards in the purchase specification agreement Request copy of vendor’s most recent health department inspection report Make unannounced inspections of the delivery trucks; school staff should report dirty, unsafe trucks Visit warehouse periodically to see that it is clean & organized Reject all products that do not meet requirements; school staff must assist with this as well
The person who is receiving a food delivery is responsible for controlling the quality and safety of the foods that are accepted. To insure food safety and food quality, employees must be trained to accept only that products that meet specifications, quality standards, and sanitation requirements. The goals of receiving are to make sure foods are fresh and safe when they arrive and then transfer them to storage as quickly as possible. Follow these food safety guidelines for receiving: Train employees for receiving duties 2. Organize physical space used for receiving pen & hard surface on which to write food thermometer for documenting delivery temperatures clean cart or hand truck for transporting goods to storage receiving ticket or market order ready when delivery is scheduled product specification list keep receiving area well lighted & clean to discourage pests 3. Inspect delivery truck when it arrives truck looks and smells clean check interior temperature – is it appropriate for the foods being delivered? 4. Inspect foods immediately upon delivery do they meet temperature requirements, food specifications, and food quality standards? mark all items with arrival date or “use by” date check expiration dates of milk, eggs, & other perishable foods check to be sure shelf dates have not expired frozen foods are in air-tight, moisture-proof wrapping reject foods that have been thawed & frozen: signs include large ice crystals, solid areas of ice, excessive ice in container reject cans that have signs of deterioration: swollen sides or ends, flawed seams or seals, dents, or rust use food thermometer to check food temperatures examine packaging for content damage & insect infestation reject dairy, bakery, & other foods delivered on dirty flats or crates remove empty containers & packing material immediately to the trash or recycling area
Refer participants to pages 70-73 of handout. Distribute page 95 handout from instructor’s manual. Ask participants to work individually to decide whether to accept or reject various items listed. Describe WHY you made the decision. Answers on page 94 of instructor’s manual.
Both the quality and safety of foods is affected if they are improperly stored. In some cases harmful microorganisms are allowed to grow causing foodborne illness. These are the most common methods of food storage. Which ones do you have in your facility? Refer participants to pages 74-76 in the handout.
Divide participant into 4 groups and assign each group one of the areas of storage. Refer them to pages 74-76 for safe food storage guidelines. Be prepared to fill in missing key information as groups present their reports.
During the food preparation step, there are many opportunities for food handlers to contaminate the foods. It is important that food handlers be diligent to prevent contamination of foods; avoid time in the temperature danger zone; and use safe food handling practices. Freezing food keeps most bacteria from multiplying but it does no kill them. NEVER thaw food at room temperature. Why? 4 safe methods to thaw frozen food: see page 77 in handout
Refer to page 78 in handout. Review the guidelines.
Refer to page 79 in handout. Review guidelines. Review minimum safe internal temperatures on page 80. These are based on the 2001 Food Code . Be sure to check with your local or state Health Department for any changes to these temperatures listed.
Refer to page 81-82 in handout. Divide the participants into 3 groups. Assign each group one of the “hold & serve” topics. Each group should plan a presentation that explains the important guidelines of their assigned topic. Be prepared to fill in key information as group presentations are being made.
Refer to page 83-84 in handout. Review key information.
Refer to page 84 in the handout. Review the key points.
Our last chapter is on HACCP—Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point. The 2004 Reauthorization Act HACCP
Discuss key points form introduction on page 92 of the handout.
Refer to page 92 of handout for more description.
Refer to page 92 of handout for more description.
Read screen. The 7 principles of HACCP can be used during the 8-step foodservice process to help prevent foodborne illness.
The highest priority for all foodservice managers is protection of our customers by serving safe foods. These tasks will help manager achieve this goal. See page 93 in handout.
Discuss each of these briefly. See pages 93-95 in handout. Track each food from purchasing and receiving thru serving and reheating. School menus grouped by process: Items prepared and served without cooking; green salads, meat salads, deli meats Items prepared and cooked just-in-time for service; hot dogs, hamburgers Items prepared, cooked, held, cooled, reheated, and served; tacos, spaghetti Identify PHFs hazards at each step; plan control measures; example: tuna sandwich Evaluate general preparation, cooking, chilling, holding procedures Rank in terms of severity and probability; How serious are the consequences? How likely? See pg 95 in book for example on Chicken Ask…“What are the Hazards that could occur in this step?”
Refer to pages 95-96 of handout. CCP – a point or procedure in a specific food system where loss of control my result in unacceptable health risk “ where” hazards can be…. Identify procedures to prevent, reduce and eliminate recontamination hazards at each step
Refer to page 96 in handout. Specify exactly what should be done to meet each standard (CL). In addition: Provided food thermometers Teach how to use and calibrate Ensure that they use routinely On recipes indicate end state cooking, reheating, and hot holding temps Indicate specific times for thawing, cooking and cooling foods Provide directions for handling leftovers Schedule sufficient staff in peak hours to prepare and serve food safely
Refer to page 96 in handout. Monitor at every step Compare what actually happens during the process with established standards Read the example on pg 96
Refer to page 96-97 in handout.
Refer to page 97 in handout. If corrective actions needed frequently , this may mean HACCP system needs changing or fine tuning Think of tests: like measuring concentration of sanitizer. Examine records to see that employees are entering actual valid data Use inspection form to see that HACCP process is working
Refer to page 97 in handout. Maybe – simple quick forms for employees to record their compliance with standards at CCP’s Written records may provide proof that a foodborne illness did not originate there Records also continue to help improve sanitation procedures and HACCP system
Using the recipe for Oven Fried Chicken, correlate the 7 principles of HACCP with the 8 steps of safe food practices. Each HACCP principle may not be present in every step Refer to pages 98-100 in handout.
Food service faciltiies
Serving It Safe Chapter 4A Clean and Sanitary Foodservice
Food-safe Facility• Clean floors, walls, & ceilings• Clean & sanitary serving areas• Good ventilation• Clean employee restrooms• Clean & neat trash collection areas• Effective pest control program
Walls & Ceilings• Smooth, non absorbent & easy to clean• Should be light colors• Swab cleaning for ceilings
Plumbing• refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution of potable water and the removal of waterborne wastes.
Pest Control Guidelines ongoing pest control program – licensed operato fill openings around pipes, fittings screens, in good repair self-closing doors, air doors tight-fitting lids on labeled containers store food off floor 6” inspect foods and destroy infested clean grease traps
Cockroaches• Any place that is dark, warm, moist and hard to clean Holes, boxes, seams of bags folds of paper• Seeing one in day is sign of serious infestation• Strong oily odor• Feces like pepper grains• Dark capsule-shaped egg cases
Flies• Enter through tiny holes size of pinhead• Contaminate with mouth, hair, feces, feet• Lay eggs in warm decaying material, away from sun
Rodents• Signs: – Droppings – Gnawing – Tracks in dust – Nesting materials – Holes in baseboards and walls
4 Basic Methods of Pest Control1. Build them out- Block all possible rodent entrance- Put screens on all windows & doors.- All doors must be self closing- Inspect incoming supplies for signs of insect infestations.
Chemical Sanitizing1) Chlorine- most commonly used and cheapest.• Effective in hard water, inactivated in hot water (120°F)• Too much chlorine can pit stainless steel and aluminum surface
2) Iodine – more expensive and less effective than chlorine.3) Quaternary Ammonium compounds (Quats) - non corrosive to metal surface and non irritating ti skin - Does not kill certain types of microorganism
Chemical Sanitizing –Three-Compartment Sink• Step 1: Clean & sanitize sinks• Step 2: Scape and pre-soak Wash in 1st sink, 110° Rinse in 2nd sink, 110° Sanitize in 3rd sink, 171°• Step 3: Air dry• Step 4: Store
Heat Sanitizing- Dishwashing Machine • Wash at 150° • Rinse at 180°
Purchasing-Vendor• Federal and State health standards – Clean delivery trucks with adequate refrigeration and freezer units, correct temperatures, separate raw and fresh foods• Standardized food sanitation – written policy and procedures• Train employees in sanitation
Purchasing-Purchaser• Work with vendor• Food delivery schedule• Vendor standardized procedures in print• Purchase specification• Vendor sanitation report
Food Safety Guidelines for Receiving• Train employees for receiving duties• Organize space, equipment and lighting for receiving efficiency• Inspect delivery trucks• Inspect food immediately
RECEIVING• Packaged – insert between two packages• Milk – open a carton and insert two inches in• Frozen – insert between two packages
Safe Food Storage• Dry storage-long holding for less perishable items• Refrigerator-short-term for perishable items• Deep-chilling unit-spec. foods for short time• Freezer-long term food storage
Small Group Activity1. Share information most applicable to your operation2. Give at least 1 example of how you can use these guidelines in your operation3. Share information about your school’s food storage
Preparing Foods SafelyFreezing does not kill bacteria.Thawing – 4 Safe Methods 1. In refrigerator at 41°F 2. Under flowing water 70°F 3. In microwave – cook immediately Not for schools 4. As part of cooking process
Preparing Foods Safely•Pre preparation: Assemble recipe ingredients Weigh or measure ingredients Assemble small equipment & utensilsCautions: Prep is usually done at room temp Commonly a point of cross contamination
Guidelines for Preparation continued….•Wash hands first•Prepare no further in advance thannecessary•Small batches; refrigerate immediately at or below 41°F•Wash fresh fruits and vegetables regardlessof how it will be served•Use scrub brush on thick skinned produce
Guidelines for Preparation continued…..• Avoid cross-contamination• Wash hands correctly first• Raw separate from Ready-to-Serve• Wash, rinse, sanitize cutting boards, utensils, equipment, all food contact surfaces after each contact with a food. Wash hands again.• Batter, breading, marinades for one recipe only. Use as recipe states.
Guidelines for Preparation continued…..• Report cans of bad food to manager, purchaser, and vendor• Keep can, lid and box with important tracking numbers• Mark can as “Do Not use”• Afterwards, discard according to state and district procedures• Be especially careful with PHF
Preparing Foods Safely• Follow food safety guidelines for panned foods to be cooked later• Follow food safety guidelines for cold foods that will not be cooked
Guidelines for Planned Foods to be Cooked Later• Wash hands, use gloves properly• 20 minute limit for preparation, then chill to hold• Avoid cross-contamination• Cover during storage• Document internal temp during holding
Guidelines for Cold Foods Not to be Cooked• Wash hands, use gloves• Chill safely prepared ingredients before combining in recipe• Small batches; cold store immediately• Prepare no further in advance than necessary• Hold below 41°F; and document• Avoid cross-contamination• Wash, rinse, sanitize cutting boards, utensils, equipment, all food contact surfaces after each contact with a food. Wash hands again.
Cooking Foods Safely• Follow food safety guidelines for cooking foods• Cook to minimum safe internal temperatures
Guidelines for Cooking Foods Safely•Follow manufacturer’s directions andfollow recipes•Stir frequently to ensure even heat•Avoid overloading fryers•Regulate portion size and thickness forcooking together and uniformly•Never interrupt cooking
Guidelines for Cooking Foods Safely Continued…• Use food thermometer on equipment and food thermometers• Check in several places, thickest parts• Don’t touch pan or bone with thermometer• Use serving utensil or single use gloves• Taste food correctly• Reach safe internal temperatures • Poultry and casseroles – 165°F • Ground Meats – 155°F • Fish – 145°F
Holding and Serving Food Safely• Follow food safety guidelines for Holding and Serving• Follow food safety guidelines for Employees on the Service Line• Follow food safety guidelines for Sanitary Self-service
Guidelines for Holding and Serving Foods Safely• Use hot-holding equipment for service, not reheating• Use refrigeration or ice surrounding items• Stir at intervals• Check temps every 30 minutes; sanitize thermometers• Document temperatures while in TDZ• Cover hot holding equipment; retain heat• Monitor temp of hot-holding equipment• Don’t refresh pans, change pans
Guidelines for Employees on Service Line• Use good personal hygiene• Wash hands and arms correctly• Use cleaned, sanitized long-handled ladles and spoons• Don’t touch parts of plates, food trays, flatware that will touch food or mouths• Single-use gloves, tongs to serve by hand• Clean and sanitize equipment after each use• Use lids and sneeze guards• Always wash hands between tasks• Always clean and sanitize prep areas and equipment between tasks• Discard garnishes from service line
Guidelines for Safe Self-Service• Monitor customers in self-service• Post signs of advice for customers• Remove contaminated foods• Use packaged foods to avoid contamination• Monitor and document internal temps of self service foods every 30 minutes
Cooling Food Safely• Follow steps for safe cooling• Chill hot food to 70° within 2 hours and then to 45° in an additional 4 hours• Store cooked foods above raw foods in the refrigerator/freezer
Guidelines for Cooling Foods Safely• Avoid cross-contamination: cover loosely• Reduce food mass• Use shallow, pre-chilled pans less than 4 inches deep• Stainless steel better chills faster than plastic
Guidelines for Cooling Foods Safely• Continued….. – Use ice-water bath – Use quick-chill unit – Pre-chill in freezer before refrigeration, stir – Provide air flow around foods; no stacking – NEVER cool food at room temperature – Stir frequently; cold paddles, washed and sanitized – Measure and document temps during cooling – Cover and label cooled foods with name, date, time of preparation
Cooling Properly• From 140°F down to 70°F in 2 hours• From 70°F to 45°F in additional 4 hours• Foods not reaching 70°F within 2 hours must be reheated immediately to 165°F for 15 secs.
Reheating Foods Safely• Follow guidelines for reheating food• Take foods through the temperature danger zone quickly
Guidelines for Reheating Foods Safely• Pass through TDZ quickly• Reheat previously cooked food to 165°F, 15 sec. internal temp• Heat to 165°F, 15 sec., when adding precooked food to recipe• Heat sauce, soup, gravy to 165°F15 sec.• Never reheat in hot-holding equipment• Never mix leftovers with fresh batches• Food held at 41°F or less may be held 7 days• Assure refrigeration can hold leftovers at 41°F or below
Serving It Safe Chapter 6 Introduction to HazardAnalysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)
Introduction to HACCP• A preventative process, food safety system• To reduce risk of foodborne illness• By proper food handling• Through Monitoring procedures• and Recordkeeping• Focus is on food
Five Risk Factors• Foods from unsafe sources• Poor personal hygiene• Inadequate cooking• Improper holding temperatures• Contaminated equipment
HACCP helps. . .• Identify hazardous foods and procedures• Develop procedures to control• Monitor use of procedures• Verify that system is working
Basic Food Safety Procedures • Personal hygiene • Facility design—clean and sanitary • Vendors • Food specifications • Routine cleaning and sanitation • Equipment maintenance
Seven Principles of HACCP1. Identify hazards2. Identify Critical Control Points (CCP)3. Establish critical limits (CL)4. Establish monitoring procedures5. Establish corrective actions6. Establish verification procedures7. Establish record keeping procedures
HACCP: Prevent foodborne illness• Identify hazardous foods and procedures• Develop procedures to reduce risk• Monitor use of procedures• Verify that food is safe to eat
1. Identify Hazards• Track each food• Review menus• Group foods• Potentially hazardous food• Evaluate• Rank
2. Identify Critical Control Points• CCPs• Hazard can be controlled• Hazard can be prevented• Loss of control• Unacceptable health risk
3. Establish Critical Limits• CL• Standards – Observable – pH – Measurable – Humidity – Usually temperature – Salt concentration and time – Available chlorine
4. Establish monitoring procedures• Use CL• Monitor Potentially Hazardous Food• Identify deficiency outside CL• Train on how to monitor
5. Establish Corrective Action• CCP does not meet CL• Need for corrective action• Examples
6. Establish Verification• How often are corrective actions needed?• What tests can be done?• Use routine inspection from public health.
7. Establish Record Keeping• System to document HACCP process and monitor results• Records help continue to improve procedures and HACCP
Seven Principles of HACCP1. Identify hazards2. Identify Critical Control Points (CCP)3. Establish critical limits4. Establish monitoring procedures5. Establish corrective actions6. Establish verification procedures7. Establish record keeping procedures