Final Disposition       Supplementary SlideshowOpen the LEC2B Narrative in another browser window to view follow along wit...
BurialThe act of placing a body in the earth for the purpose of final disposition
Stonehenge – Salisbury, UK“The site was used as a cemetery for 500 years, from the point of its inception…”Archeologists d...
Saharan Desert CemeteryBurial in arid regions with stony soil is done in shallow graves with earth, sandand stone mounded ...
Slab-lined Cist Grave - IrelandThe Beaker People – 2800-1800 BC – are believed to have introduced the practice ofburying p...
Merry Cemetery - Sapanta, RomaniaThe unique and colorful grave markers in this UNESCO-maintained cemeteryare highly adorne...
Prostejov Municipal Cemetery, Czech RepublicThis modern European cemetery – paved, planted and trimmed into a park-like at...
Jewish Quarter Cemetery – Prague, Czech RepublicJewish custom prohibited the moving or disturbance of graves. ThisJewish c...
Great Lavra Ossuary: Mt. Athos, GreeceWhen cemeteries grew full – or religious custom demanded – the bones ofskeletonized ...
Sedlec Ossuary – Kutna Hora, Czech RepublicThe Sedlec Ossuary, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints is a “Chu...
Fort Bayard National Cemetery –Silver City, New MexicoIn the USA, National cemeteries were established for the purpose of ...
Arlington National Cemetery –Arlington, Virginia, USAThe 624 acres at Arlington contain more than 400,000 interments. Abou...
Cemetery Wildflower Meadow – Carlisle, UKIn the UK, over 6,000 churchyard cemeteries welcome both history and natureunder ...
Tree burial in Brighton-Hove, UKMunicipal cemeteries, strapped for space and funds, are now going beyondthe conventional b...
EntombmentThe act of placing human remains into a tomb or chamber for final            disposition
Egyptian Pyramids at Giza – Cairo, EgyptThe earliest known Egyptian pyramids were constructed around 2600 BCE andare the l...
Early Egyptian burial, pre-3000 BCEFor those who couldn’t buy tombs, shallow graves held bodies wrappedin linen, surrounde...
Theban style tomb – Deir el Medina, EgyptIndividual pyramid tombs were likely made by craftsmen who worked onthe pyramids ...
The Plain of Jars in Laos, Cambodia – 500 BCE-500CEThis burial ground dates to the Iron Age. The “jars” are cut from rock,...
Marakesh Cemetery – Merzouga, MoroccoTraditional burials in arid regions were also encased slightly above ground, sealed s...
The cliff-side tombs of Myra, TurkeyRock-cut tombs carved into sheer limestone cliffs deter grave robbers, aproblem in cul...
Wedge Tomb – Ireland; 2500-2000 BCEThis late Neolithic-Middle Bronze Age tomb-style has roof and walls of slabstone, taper...
English Tombs of Royalty – 1100-1500 ACEThe carved and painted tomb of Eleanor of Aquitaine lies between her son Richard I...
Modern tombs, now called “Private Estates”The tomb of William Randolph Hearst, prominent American industrialist,exemplifie...
The Terra Cotta Warriors – Xian, ChinaOne of the most elaborate examples of funerary art accompanying burial of anotable p...
Signs of status – Zhou Dynasty, Luoyang, ChinaAs part of this tomb, the main pit of the unlined earthen burial site nearby...
Takamatsu Zuka Kofun – 700-800 ACE, JapanThis burial mound, now covered with bamboo, houses an internal chamber whosewalls...
Mausoleum – Voghera, ItalyA mausoleum is a free-standing building comprised of stone or cement burial cryptsfor entombment...
CremationFinal disposition of the body through             incineration
Crematorium circa 1870 – Lancaster, PennsylvaniaCremation takes place in a cremator, a large oven-like device designed to ...
Pashupatinath CremationPrior to performing the procedure in a building, the first cremations were“open-air” cremations, li...
“Viking Funeral” of Russian Noble by SiemiradzkiIn this image mourners, family, friends and comrades are preparing for the...
Crestone, Colorado – Open Air CremationIn the US and the UK, funeral rights advocates are successfully winningchanges in r...
Exposure Burials    A burial that leaves the bodyunburied, exposed to the elements of sun, rain, air and scavenger animials
Native American Tree “Burial”Many Native American tribes practiced “tree burial”, with the corpse wrappedtightly in hides,...
Native American – Crow Indian Platform BurialOn the North American plains in areas where there were few trees, raisedplatf...
Dakhma/Tower of Silence – Ritual ExposureThis Zorastrian practice involves laying the body - considered “unclean” andpollu...
ExcarnationThe act of removing flesh from the  bones of a corpse (de-fleshing)
Tibetan “Sky Burial”In the traditional Tibetan “Sky Burial” dating back over 2,000 years, Tibetan priestsritually offer th...
The cycle of life is completeIn a Tibetan Sky Burial, the corpse may or may not be ritually dismemberedbeforehand by a pri...
The End“Im not afraid of death; I just dontwant to be there when it happens.”          ― Woody Allen
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  • Was Stonehenge one of the first “Private Estates?”http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/7426195.stm “ Stonehenge served as a burial ground for much longer than had previously been believed, new research suggests.http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f1/Stonehenge_Total-2.jpg/1280px-Stonehenge_Total-2.jpgThe site was used as a cemetery for 500 years, from the point of its inception.Archaeologists have said the cremation burials found at the site might represent a single elite family and its descendents - perhaps a ruling dynasty.One clue to this idea is that there are few burials in the earliest phase, but that the number grows larger in later centuries, as offspring multiplied.Under the traditional view, cremation burials were dug at the site between 2,700 BC and 2,600 BC, about a century before the large stones - known as sarsens - were put in place.Professor Mike Parker Pearson, from the department of archaeology at the University of Sheffield, and his colleagues have now carried out radiocarbon dating of burials excavated in the 1950s that were kept at the nearby Salisbury Museum.Their results suggest burials took place at the site from the initiation of Stonehenge, just after 3,000 BC, until the time the large stones appear at about 2,500 BC. The earliest cremation burial dated - a small pile of burned bones and teeth - came from one of the pits around the edge of Stonehenge known as the Aubrey Holes and dates to between 3,030 BC and 2,880 BC - roughly the time when the Stonehenge monument was cut into Salisbury Plain.The second burial, from the ditch surrounding Stonehenge, is that of an adult and dates to between 2,930 BC and 2,870 BC.The most recent cremation comes from the ditch's northern side and was of a 25-year-old woman; it dates to between 2,570 BC and 2,340 BC, around the time the first arrangements of sarsen stones appeared at Stonehenge.The latest findings are the result of the Stonehenge Riverside Project, a collaboration between five UK universities. Details of the research are to be featured in National Geographic magazine.Royal circle?Professor Parker-Pearson, who leads the project, said: "I don't think it was the common people getting buried at Stonehenge - it was clearly a special place at that time."He added: "Archaeologists have long speculated about whether Stonehenge was put up by prehistoric chiefs - perhaps even ancient royalty - and the new results suggest that not only is this likely to have been the case, but it also was the resting place of their mortal remains."Two other Stonehenge experts, Professor Tim Darvill, from the University of Bournemouth, and Professor Geoff Wainwright, from the Society of Antiquaries, have a different theory about the monument.They are convinced that the dominating feature on Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire was akin to a "Neolithic Lourdes" - a place where people went on a pilgrimage to get cured.They recently carried out a two-week excavation at the site to search for clues to why the 4,500-year-old landmark was erected.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Cemetery_Merzouga.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beaker_culture
  • http://listverse.com/2009/03/21/10-fascinating-graveyards-you-must-see/http://carmel.pasi.ro/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/Merry-cemetery-Sapanta-Romania.jpg
  • http://www.asa-group.com/en/A-S-A-Group/Services/For-municipalities.asa – offers cemetery management serviceshttp://www.asa-group.com/Files/Galleries/group%2Fother-services%2Fmunicipal/91cemetery-management-prostejov-cz-.jpg?w=900
  • http://ontheluce.files.wordpress.com/2012/08/cemetery-1.jpg?w=620&h=393http://ontheluce.com/2012/08/07/in-pictures-the-prague-jewish-cemetery/
  • http://cutsinger.net/images/athos_2007/great_lavra_ossuary_2.jpg
  • https://www.google.com/search?q=sedlec+ossuary&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=1ks&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=OpzHUMT_MqbEigKVg4AY&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAA&biw=907&bih=850http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-fLU00CYSVE4/TaGaEBgOsEI/AAAAAAAAKCs/n9Mv1P68qkE/s640/sedlec+ossuary+2.jpg
  • http://www.ingraham.ca/bob/~IMAGES/fortbayard_cemetary_web.jpg
  • http://www.armytimes.com/news/2012/01/ap-more-than-400000-buried-at-arlington-cemetery-012512/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arlington_National_Cemeteryhttp://www.defense.gov/DODCMSShare/NewsStoryPhoto/2011-09/hrs_110921-A-000W-001.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Egyptian_pyramidshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mastabahttp://aboutfacts.net/Ancient/AN91/CC/All_Gizah_Pyramids.jpg
  • http://myweb.usf.edu/~liottan/tombsofancientegypt.html“The tombs that were built can be classified by the status one had while alive. The poorest people were buried in shallow graves scooped out of the sand with a straw outer covering. These graves were common in predynasty. Many of these bodies were wrapped in linen and found in a fetal position. There would be some grave goods beside the body, but what was left was “a pot or two, a little meat, or perhaps a necklace of shells.”[9] Sometimes the poorer people would place the deceased “close to the graves of the rich, so that their relatives could share in the abundant grave goods left for the upper classes.”[9]”
  • Image: http://www.luxor4u.com/archaeological/medina.htmlhttp://www.luxor4u.com/archaeological/photos/deir_el_medina5.jpg
  • https://www.google.com/search?q=plain+of+jars+laos&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=xl&tbo=u&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=ZnTHUI_RCIOCiwLo9YGQDA&ved=0CDwQsAQ&biw=1060&bih=821http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-8nUmW3QyBbM/TnAFsYN_SMI/AAAAAAAAHB8/qt-V3NdbfaA/s1600/jars.jpg
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Desert_Cemetery_Merzouga.jpgPhoto: Bjørn Christian TørrissenPhoto from http://lauramcadams.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/081.jpgDo a google image search for “marakesh cemetery” - https://www.google.com/search?q=marrakesh+cemetery&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=UAK&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=K8vGUI6mOeS9igKYwIGwAw&ved=0CAcQ_AUoAA&biw=773&bih=850The Saadian Tombs – get info
  • The cliff-side tombs of Myra, Turkeyhttp://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large/dalyan-rock-tombs-turkey-julie-l-hoddinott.jpghttps://www.google.com/search?q=The+cliff-side+tombs+of+Myra,+Turkey&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=0XfHUP7rGYXmiwKF_oCgAg&ved=0CAQQ_AUoADgK&biw=864&bih=821
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Glantane_East_Wedge_Tomb.jpg/800px-Glantane_East_Wedge_Tomb.jpgImages:https://www.google.com/search?q=The+cliff-side+tombs+of+Myra,+Turkey&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=0XfHUP7rGYXmiwKF_oCgAg&ved=0CAQQ_AUoADgK&biw=864&bih=821#hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US%3Aofficial&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=wedge+tomb&oq=wedge+tomb&gs_l=img.3..0l3j0i5j0i24.21386.22886.0.23203.10.10.0.0.0.0.323.1660.0j8j1j1.10.0...0.0...1c.1.6pzIjPq19WI&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.1354675689,d.cGE&fp=46d5668e7fcd7f3&bpcl=39650382&biw=864&bih=821http://www.irishmegaliths.org.uk/seanchlocha3.htmhttp://www.voicesfromthedawn.com/labbacallee/http://www.shee-eire.com/Sites&Monuments/Wedge-tombs/main.htm
  • Image:http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/16251/Eleanor-of-Aquitaine-lies-between-her-son-Richard-I-andImageshttps://www.google.com/search?q=english+tomb&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=1VB&tbo=u&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=jn_HUPSVOKnBiwL724HoBQ&ved=0CEIQsAQ&biw=676&bih=821#hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=4VB&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US%3Aofficial&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=english+tomb+henry+II&oq=english+tomb+henry+II&gs_l=img.3...33059.35582.0.35929.11.10.1.0.0.0.114.949.8j2.10.0...0.0...1c.1.4QB5anYYWcE&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.1354675689,d.cGE&fp=ad4618eead965024&bpcl=39650382&biw=676&bih=821
  • Colma CAhttp://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WM7JZT_William_Randolph_Hearst_Colma_CA
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terracotta_Armyhttp://www.globalmountainsummit.org/images/terracotta-warriors/terracotta-army-pit1-l.jpg
  • http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2032697/Trip-Zhou-Remains-horses-chariots-unearthed-3-000-year-old-Chinese-Dynastys-tomb.htmlhttps://www.google.com/search?q=horse+tomb+china&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=vVq&tbo=u&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=inrHUOY2sNeKAv8i&ved=0CEgQsAQ&biw=976&bih=821#hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&hs=4Vq&tbo=d&rls=org.mozilla:en-US%3Aofficial&tbm=isch&sa=1&q=horse+zhou+tomb+china&oq=horse+zhou+tomb+china&gs_l=img.3...206125.208060.2.208395.7.6.1.0.0.1.146.620.5j1.6.0...0.0...1c.1.jbvpwoBkvJ8&pbx=1&bav=on.2,or.r_gc.r_pw.r_qf.&bvm=bv.1354675689,d.cGE&fp=6e18d33811a7a07a&bpcl=39650382&biw=976&bih=821
  • http://www2.gol.com/users/stever/asuka.htmJapanese burial mound images:https://www.google.com/search?q=japanese+burial+mound&hl=en&safe=off&client=firefox-a&tbo=u&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&tbm=isch&source=univ&sa=X&ei=QIfHULGfA8KDjALGvoHYDg&ved=0CDUQsAQ&biw=733&bih=821
  • http://www.obit-mag.com/media/image/HPIM2733(1).jpgArticle:http://www.obit-mag.com/articles/you-assume-they-exhume-burial-italian-style
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Lancaster_PA_Crematorium.jpg – Full CCL
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f2/Pashupatinath_Temple_Cremation.jpg/800px-Pashupatinath_Temple_Cremation.jpg
  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Funeral_of_russian_noble_by_Siemiradzki.jpg
  • http://www.devsite.crestoneeagle.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/CEOLP_KucinCremation_Facing_east.jpghttp://www.crestoneeagle.com/crestone-end-of-life-project-in-the-end-there-is-only-love/
  • http://vintageprintable.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/Medical-Death-Photo-Native-American-Tree-Burial-1-300x243.jpgGreat texthttp://eremita.di.uminho.pt/gutenberg/3/2/9/3/32938/32938-h/mortuary.html
  • http://soloroadtrip.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/04/indian-burial-platform1.jpg
  • http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ly36wbdPTo1qaagrjo2_1280.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dakhma
  • http://static.ddmcdn.com/gif/sky-burial-3.jpgVery good story:http://people.howstuffworks.com/culture-traditions/cultural-traditions/sky-burial.htm
  • http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_m23g7nxIJ51qhc5goo1_1280.jpghttp://www.patheos.com/blogs/americanbuddhist/2012/09/tibetan-sky-burial-photos.html\\
  • 2.disposition.lec2 b.current.slideshare

    1. 1. Final Disposition Supplementary SlideshowOpen the LEC2B Narrative in another browser window to view follow along with written text that’s relevant to this section Images are offered here for informational purposes only
    2. 2. BurialThe act of placing a body in the earth for the purpose of final disposition
    3. 3. Stonehenge – Salisbury, UK“The site was used as a cemetery for 500 years, from the point of its inception…”Archeologists date the first cremation burials here around 3,000 BC, about 500 years after theplacement of the monolithic Sarsen stones. The site’s original use is still debated, and someclaim it’s a combination memorial, burial ground, and healing or pilgrimage site. SOURCELINK
    4. 4. Saharan Desert CemeteryBurial in arid regions with stony soil is done in shallow graves with earth, sandand stone mounded on top. This cemetery just out side of Merzouga,Morocco in the Saharan desert is contemporary somewhat, and yet thepractice of desert earth burial dates back thousands of years. SOURCE LINK
    5. 5. Slab-lined Cist Grave - IrelandThe Beaker People – 2800-1800 BC – are believed to have introduced the practice ofburying people in graves in the British Isles. Burials were commonly accompanied by‘grave goods’ that represent social status, skilled trades, or are spiritual tokens. Thegrave shown here is a “Cist” style, lined with stone slabs. SOURCE LINK
    6. 6. Merry Cemetery - Sapanta, RomaniaThe unique and colorful grave markers in this UNESCO-maintained cemeteryare highly adorned with cut-tin decorations, painted inscriptions and imagesabout the life lived. Notice the raised bed gardens atop each grave space. SOURCE LINK
    7. 7. Prostejov Municipal Cemetery, Czech RepublicThis modern European cemetery – paved, planted and trimmed into a park-like atmosphere - reflects the modern management techniques popular withmany cities today, who subsidize the cost with general city funds because ofthe pleasurable greenspace provided by cemeteries. IMAGE SOURCE LINK
    8. 8. Jewish Quarter Cemetery – Prague, Czech RepublicJewish custom prohibited the moving or disturbance of graves. ThisJewish cemetery has over 12,000 gravestones in a very small area, withan estimated 100,000 interments over 12 layers deep. SOURCE LINK
    9. 9. Great Lavra Ossuary: Mt. Athos, GreeceWhen cemeteries grew full – or religious custom demanded – the bones ofskeletonized corpses were dug up, often ritually washed, and placed in specialplaces or buildings for their permanent storage, called “ossuaries” or “charnelhouses” SOURCE LINK
    10. 10. Sedlec Ossuary – Kutna Hora, Czech RepublicThe Sedlec Ossuary, located beneath the Cemetery Church of All Saints is a “Church ofBones”, decorated with 40,000 -70,000 human skeletons. After removing them fromthe cemetery graves, several hundred years of bones were in disordered piles and awoodcarver was hired to arrange them artfully as they are seen today. SOURCE LINK
    11. 11. Fort Bayard National Cemetery –Silver City, New MexicoIn the USA, National cemeteries were established for the purpose of burying militaryveterans. The gravemarkers are uniform, and the cemeteries are laid out identically,according to the burial regulations of the burial period. US National Cemeteries dohave sustainability guidelines, but they are currently unenforced. SOURCE LINK
    12. 12. Arlington National Cemetery –Arlington, Virginia, USAThe 624 acres at Arlington contain more than 400,000 interments. About7,000 burials a year take place here. Arlington is run by the US Dept. of theArmy; all other national cemeteries are run by the National Park Service or theDept. of Veterans Affairs. SOURCE LINK
    13. 13. Cemetery Wildflower Meadow – Carlisle, UKIn the UK, over 6,000 churchyard cemeteries welcome both history and natureunder the auspices of the Living Churchyard Program, along with an active naturalburial movement there. Grave areas are re-seeded with wildflowers and mowed1-2x a year, providing habitat for birds, squirrels, and pollinators. SOURCE LINK
    14. 14. Tree burial in Brighton-Hove, UKMunicipal cemeteries, strapped for space and funds, are now going beyondthe conventional burial practices, interring bodies directly into the earth with atree planted on top of the grave. This is in an existing city-cemetery’sexpansion, and this tree-burial section is now full. SOURCE LINK
    15. 15. EntombmentThe act of placing human remains into a tomb or chamber for final disposition
    16. 16. Egyptian Pyramids at Giza – Cairo, EgyptThe earliest known Egyptian pyramids were constructed around 2600 BCE andare the largest burial chambers known. Prior to the pyramid, prominentEgyptians were buried in “mastabas”, and the stepped-structure of both is saidto assist ascension into their Heaven. SOURCE LINK
    17. 17. Early Egyptian burial, pre-3000 BCEFor those who couldn’t buy tombs, shallow graves held bodies wrappedin linen, surrounded by pots, food, & jewelry. Dessication, rather thandecomposition, occurs in the dry soil, leaving more grave artifacts andhuman remains than are found in temperate zones . SOURCE LINK
    18. 18. Theban style tomb – Deir el Medina, EgyptIndividual pyramid tombs were likely made by craftsmen who worked onthe pyramids for themselves and wealthier members of a community.The tombs sit atop actual graves and may contain painted images andinscriptions on the inner walls. SOURCE LINK
    19. 19. The Plain of Jars in Laos, Cambodia – 500 BCE-500CEThis burial ground dates to the Iron Age. The “jars” are cut from rock, primarilysandstone. Remains have been found within the jars, and in the groundaround the jars, leading archeologists to suggest the jar was for principalfamily or caste members , with secondary burials outside. SOURCE LINK
    20. 20. Marakesh Cemetery – Merzouga, MoroccoTraditional burials in arid regions were also encased slightly above ground, sealed sothey could not be disturbed. One custom holds that tombs aren’t marked with aname until the last person in the family has died, and that burial represents the end ofthe family line. SOURCE LINK
    21. 21. The cliff-side tombs of Myra, TurkeyRock-cut tombs carved into sheer limestone cliffs deter grave robbers, aproblem in cultures where graves contain valuable items that conferstatus in the present day and utility in the afterlife. SOURCE LINK
    22. 22. Wedge Tomb – Ireland; 2500-2000 BCEThis late Neolithic-Middle Bronze Age tomb-style has roof and walls of slabstone, tapered at one end with the wider opening toward the East. The burialtakes place within the enclosure and is then covered with a pile of loosestones, called a “cairn”. SOURCE LINK
    23. 23. English Tombs of Royalty – 1100-1500 ACEThe carved and painted tomb of Eleanor of Aquitaine lies between her son Richard Iand her second husband, Henry II, both kings of England. Graves of royalty andprominent people were often beneath the churches, with the common people buriedoutside in the “churchyard”, as close as they could afford to be. SOURCE LINK
    24. 24. Modern tombs, now called “Private Estates”The tomb of William Randolph Hearst, prominent American industrialist,exemplifies the status-conferring role of a large permanent building in acemetery. This tomb serves as a family mausoleum in Colma, California. Inmodern cemeteries private tombs are sold as “private estates.” SOURCE LINK
    25. 25. The Terra Cotta Warriors – Xian, ChinaOne of the most elaborate examples of funerary art accompanying burial of anotable person is the life-size 8,000 soldier army made out of clay and buriedwith emperor Qin Shi Huang, first emperor of china, in 210-209 BCE. SOURCE LINK
    26. 26. Signs of status – Zhou Dynasty, Luoyang, ChinaAs part of this tomb, the main pit of the unlined earthen burial site nearbycontained 5 chariots and 12 horses, thought to have been interred as part ofthe entourage of a mid-level official of the Zhou Dynasty (1046-256 BCE) (SOURCE LINK)
    27. 27. Takamatsu Zuka Kofun – 700-800 ACE, JapanThis burial mound, now covered with bamboo, houses an internal chamber whosewalls are painted with astronomical images. The person(s) it was built for is unknown,suggesting that not all elaborate tombs were strictly about commemorating aparticular individual. SOURCE LINK
    28. 28. Mausoleum – Voghera, ItalyA mausoleum is a free-standing building comprised of stone or cement burial cryptsfor entombment aboveground. It provides one oslution to the lack-of-space problemin cemeteries. The crypts may face either inside or out. In this picture, themausoleum is to the right and private tombs are on the left. SOURCE LINK
    29. 29. CremationFinal disposition of the body through incineration
    30. 30. Crematorium circa 1870 – Lancaster, PennsylvaniaCremation takes place in a cremator, a large oven-like device designed to burna body completely, reaching temperatures that consume all but the bone andmetals with the body. This crematorium operated until 1895. SOURCE LINK
    31. 31. Pashupatinath CremationPrior to performing the procedure in a building, the first cremations were“open-air” cremations, like this one in Pashupatinath, India, where the body isplaced on a pyre of wood and burned until nothing but bones remains. Open-air cremation is still the norm in India. SOURCE LINK
    32. 32. “Viking Funeral” of Russian Noble by SiemiradzkiIn this image mourners, family, friends and comrades are preparing for theritual burning of the noble, seated in the boat among goods and offerings. Theboat will be taken out to sea and put to the torch. SOURCE LINK
    33. 33. Crestone, Colorado – Open Air CremationIn the US and the UK, funeral rights advocates are successfully winningchanges in regulation to permit open-air cremation. Promoters say it’s arespectful and safe alternative that should be permitted if families want it. SOURCE LINK
    34. 34. Exposure Burials A burial that leaves the bodyunburied, exposed to the elements of sun, rain, air and scavenger animials
    35. 35. Native American Tree “Burial”Many Native American tribes practiced “tree burial”, with the corpse wrappedtightly in hides, fiber and cloth to delay the body’s exposure to the elements,scavenging birds and other predators as long as possible. SOURCE LINK
    36. 36. Native American – Crow Indian Platform BurialOn the North American plains in areas where there were few trees, raisedplatforms were constructed to elevate the body above ground level and delaydisturbance by scavengers. SOURCE LINK
    37. 37. Dakhma/Tower of Silence – Ritual ExposureThis Zorastrian practice involves laying the body - considered “unclean” andpolluting of earth and fire – on a circular stone-and-brick tower forexcarnation by scavengers and exposure to the sun and elements. Exposurewas considered the individual’s final act of charity. SOURCE LINK
    38. 38. ExcarnationThe act of removing flesh from the bones of a corpse (de-fleshing)
    39. 39. Tibetan “Sky Burial”In the traditional Tibetan “Sky Burial” dating back over 2,000 years, Tibetan priestsritually offer the corpse to vultures., called “holy eagles” This practice expresses theBuddhist perspective that any personality connected with the body ends at death, thebody is now food, and the soul of the person has moved on. SOURCE LINK
    40. 40. The cycle of life is completeIn a Tibetan Sky Burial, the corpse may or may not be ritually dismemberedbeforehand by a priest. This image is graphic but it shows clearly howthoroughly the body is reduced to bone, with the process taking a matter ofhours to finish. SOURCE LINK
    41. 41. The End“Im not afraid of death; I just dontwant to be there when it happens.” ― Woody Allen

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