Photochemistry
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Photochemistry

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Photochemistry Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Organic Photochemistry
    • Introduction to Photochemistry
    • Classifications of Photochemical Reactions
    • Application of Photochemistry in Organic Synthesis
  • 2.  
  • 3. Energies 100 kcal/mol= 4.3 eV= 286 nm= 35000 /cm (near UV) nano= 10-9 286 kcal/mol= 12.4 eV= 100 nm= 100000 /cm (far UV) Typical Bond Energies C-H = 110 kcal/mol C-C = 80 C=C = 150 C=O = 170 Uv light 150 -40 nm wavelength, so this is sufficient energy to break bonds –knock electrons out of bonding orbitals (electronic excitation).
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  • 6. A Jablonski diagram, named after the Polish physicist AleksanderJabłoński, is a diagram that illustrates the electronic states of a molecule and the transitions between them. The states are arranged vertically by energy and grouped horizontally by spin multiplicity. Radiative transitions are indicated by straight arrows and nonradiative transitions by squiggly arrows. The vibrational ground states of each electronic state are indicated with thick lines, the higher rotational states with thinner lines.
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  • 8. Physical Processes Undergone by Excited Molecules
    • S o + hv ---  S 1 Excitation
    • S 1 v --  S 1 + heat Vibrational Relaxation
    • S 1 -----  S o + hv Fluorescence
    • S 1 ----  S o + heat Internal Conversion
    • S 1 ---  T 1 Intersystem Crossing
    • T 1 v --  T 1 + heat Vibrational Relaxation
    • T 1 v --  S o + hv Phosphorescence
    • T 1 ---  S o + heat Intersystem Crossing
    • S 1 + A (S o ) ---  S o + A (S 1 ) Singlet-Singlet Energy Transfer
    • T 1 + A (S o ) --  S o + A (T 1 ) Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer
  • 9. Why Use Photochemistry
    • Overcome large kinetic barriers in a short amount of time
    • Produce immense molecular complexity in a single step
    • Form thermodynamically disfavored products
    • Allows reactivity that would otherwise be inaccessible by almost any other synthetic method
    • The reagent (light) is cheap, easily accessible, and renewable
    • Drawback
    • Reactivity is often unpredictable
    • Many substrates are not compatible
    • Selectivity and conversion are sometimes low
  • 10. Chemical Processes undergone by Excited Molecules
  • 11.
    • 1) α-Cleavage (Norrish type I reaction). In solution the radicals undergo further reactions to give products.
  • 12.
    • 2) Hydrogen Abstraction followed by cleavage = Norrishtype II cleavage. The radicals can abstract a Hydrogen atom from a donor. The resulting radicals can then undergo further reactions.
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    • An intramolecular example:
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