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Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
Western Imperialism V2008
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Western Imperialism V2008

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  • 1. WESTERN IMPERIALISM 1880-1914 Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et al., 8 th edition – Chapter 26 Section 3
  • 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why do western powers rush to create or enlarge vast political empires abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this ‘new imperialism’ different from earlier imperialism (1816-1880)? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the apparent consequences of this imperialistic effort? </li></ul>
  • 3. New Imperialism <ul><li>1880-1914 European nations scrambled for political as well as economic control over foreign nations. </li></ul><ul><li>This scramble led to tensions among competing nations, and wars with non-European nations. </li></ul>
  • 4. Africa before 1880 <ul><li>Before 1880, European descent on Africa limited. </li></ul><ul><li>South Africa, British and Dutch Afrikaners whites fought a war over land and gold. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boer War won by British, established new Union of South Africa . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State was ruled by white minority of Afrikaners </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. The Scramble for Africa <ul><li>British occupation of Egypt and Belgian exploration of the Congo started race for colonial possessions. </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin conference (1884-1885) laid ground rules for new imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>European claims to African countries had to be based on military conquest . a.k.a. effective occupation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No single European power could claim whole continent. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany entered race for colonies and cooperated with France vs. British . French goal was control of Lake Chad. </li></ul>
  • 6. The Rhodes Colossus <ul><li>Cecil John Rhodes , PC , DCL , ( July 5 , 1853 – March 26 , 1902 [1] ) was a British-born South African businessman , mining magnate, and politician. He was the founder of the diamond company De Beers , which today markets 60% of the world's rough diamonds and at one time marketed 90%. He was an ardent believer in colonialism and was the coloniser of the state of Rhodesia , which was named after him. Rhodesia, later Northern and Southern Rhodesia , eventually became Zambia and Zimbabwe respectively. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhodes profited greatly by developing Southern Africa 's natural resources, the proceeds of which funded the Rhodes Scholarship upon his death. Rhodes is famous for having declared: &quot;To think of these stars that you see overhead at night, these vast worlds which we can never reach. I would annex the planets if I could; I often think of that. It makes me sad to see them so clear and yet so far.&quot; [2] </li></ul>
  • 7. The Fashoda Crisis <ul><ul><li>British under Kitchener massacred Muslim tribesmen at Omdurman (1898) in their drive to conquer the Sudan and nearly went to war with the French at Fashoda . ( Fashoda Crisis ) </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Imperialism in Asia <ul><li>Dutch extended control in East Indies while French took Indochina. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Asians fled from plantation and gold mine labor, to seek opportunities in towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Russia and the United States also expanded into Asia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia moved into the Caucasus and central Asia as well as China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>US took Philippines from Spain, put down revolt led by Philippine patriots. </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Causes of New Imperialism <ul><li>Economic motives , especially trade opportunities, were important, but economic benefits were limited because colonies were too poor to buy much. </li></ul><ul><li>Political and diplomatic factors also encouraged imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonies seen to be crucial for national security, military power, and international prestige . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many saw colonies as essential to great nations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, racism, and Social Darwinism contributed to imperialism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>German historian Treitschke claimed colonies essential to show racial superiority and national greatness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special interest groups, military, and adventurers favored expansion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western tech/military superiority fostered imperialism. (machine gun, quinine, steamship, telegraph ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic, Political, Diplomatic </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalism, Racism, Social Darwinism </li></ul>
  • 10. The White Man’s Burden? <ul><li>Imperialists felt they had a duty to civilize more primitive, nonwhite peoples. </li></ul><ul><li>Kipling’s “white man’s burden” </li></ul><ul><li>Missionaries brought Christianity and education, also European racism </li></ul><ul><li>An Excerpt from Kipling’s White Man’s Burden </li></ul><ul><li>Take up the White Man's burden-- Send forth the best ye breed-- Go bind your sons to exile To serve your captives' need; To wait in heavy harness, On fluttered folk and wild-- Your new-caught, sullen peoples, Half-devil and half-child. </li></ul>
  • 11. Critics of Imperialism <ul><li>What did Hobson maintain in his book Imperialism ? </li></ul><ul><li>British economist J.A. Hobson: Imperialism result of capitalism , only special-interest groups benefit from colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Others condemn on moral grounds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebelled against crude Social Darwinism of imperialists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accused imperialists of double standard: liberty and equality at home, military dictatorship and discrimination in the colonies . </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. Questions for your review <ul><li>What is the MOST striking difference between the new imperialism and earlier European expansion? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the results of the Berlin Conference? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Bismarck’s position concerning the acquisition of colonies? </li></ul><ul><li>Which countries participated in the wave of imperialism AFTER 1880? </li></ul><ul><li>What ‘principle’ did European powers need to claim an African territory? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Treitschke and what did his writings reflect? </li></ul><ul><li>What did Hobson maintain in his book Imperialism ? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Cecil Rhodes? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Labouchere? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Conrad? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Jules Ferry? What is his contribution to this history? </li></ul>

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