The Romantic Movement c.e. (1790s-1840s) Eastview High School – AP European History Ideologies and Upheavals – Chapter 23 section 3 McKay, et al. 8 th edition
How did the artists and writers of the romantic movement also reflect and influence changes in this era?
What are the essential characteristics of romanticism?
Can you identify significant works from this era?
The Romantic Movement
The Romantic Movement was partly a revolt against classicism and the Enlightenment.
Romantics rejected the classical emphasis on order and rationality.
Forerunners of the romantic movement appeared from about 1750 on; of these Rousseau – the passionate advocate of feeling, freedom, and natural goodness – was the most influential.
Romanticism was characterized by a belief in emotional exuberance, imagination, and spontaneity.
Romantics stressed individualism, led bohemian lives, and rejected materialism.
Romantics used nature as a source of inspiration, and they emphasized the study of history.
History was seen as the key to an organic, dynamic universe.
Reading and writing history was viewed as the way to understand national destiny.
Eruption of Vesuvius - Turner
Romanticism in Literature
Romantic literature first developed fully in Britain, as exemplified by the poets Wordsworth, Coleridge, Scott, Byron, Shelley, and Keats.
Wordsworth was influenced by the ideas of Rousseau and the spirit of the early French Revolution.
Wordsworth and Coleridge rejected classical rules of poetry; Wordsworth’s work points to the power of nature to elevate and instruct.
One of the best examples of his romantic credo is his poem “Daffodils.”
The Scottish novelist and poet Walter Scott romanticized history through a series of historical novels.
I wandered lonely as a cloud That floats on high o’er vales and hills, Whan all at once I saw a crowd, A host, of golden daffodils; Beside the lake, beneath the trees, Fluttering and dancing in the breeze.
Rejection of Classicism
Classicism remained strong in France under Napoleon, but in 1813 Germaine de Stael urged the French to turn away from classicism to romanticism .
In France, Victor Hugo emphasized strange settings and human emotions-such as those in his Hunchback of Notre Dame .
Romantics such as the Frenchwoman George Sand rebelled against social conventions.
In central Europe romanticism reinforced nationalism.
Romanticism in Art
Delacroix, Turner, and Constable were three of the greatest romantic painters.
Delacroix’s masterpiece, Liberty Leading the People , celebrated the nobility of popular revolution in general and revolution in France in particular.
Romanticism in Art
The Greek struggle for freedom and independence won the enthusiastic support of liberals, nationalists, and romantics. The Ottoman Turks were portrayed as cruel oppressors who were holding back the course of history, as in this moving masterpiece by Delacroix.
Romanticism in Art
In the last years of Napoleon's rule Géricault painted the military myth on a grand scale and interested David . With the Restoration, he was painting subjects of barbaric violence and accumulating studies of injuries and executions when history provided him with the shipwreck of an ill fated expedition and the desperate suffering of the survivors. Within a year he had painted The Raft of the Medusa , a picture of pathos and protest outstanding in the history of art. It equipped romantic realism with a terrific commitment to humanity and an equally terrific style, in which the ruthlessness of the square brushed modeling and the livid light were unforgettably compelling.
Romanticism in Music
Romantic composers rejected well-defined structure in their efforts to find maximum range and emotional intensity.
Liszt was the greatest pianist of his age .
Beethoven was the first master of romantic music .
Ludwig van Beethoven Franz Liszt
Questions for your review
What are the essential characteristics of the Romantic movement?
What message was Germaine de Stael trying to convey in her work On Germany ?
What topic did George Sand’s novel Lelia explore?
What theme did Delacroix’s greatest masterpiece celebrate?
Can you identify the following artists, authors, musicians and works?