Soviet Eastern Europe

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Soviet Eastern Europe

  1. 1. SOVIET EASTERN EUROPE Eastview High School – AP European History McKay et. al, 8 th ed. – Ch30 section 3
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What are the effects of Stalin’s policies on post WWII eastern Europe? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the effects of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Stalin after World War II <ul><li>While the West surged ahead economically, Eastern Europe’s political, economic, and social developments were slow and uneven —nearly at a halt by the 1960s. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin’s last years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The national unity of the war period ended in rigid dictatorship again . Similar to the totalitarianism of the 1930s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin began a new series of purges and enforced cultural conformity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet citizens living outside Russia were forced to return, and nearly a million of them, plus other Russians, died in labor camps . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Culture, art, and the Jewish religion were attacked. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five-year plans were reintroduced ; heavy and military industry were given top priority, while consumer goods, housing, and agriculture were neglected. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s system was exported to Eastern Europe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only Tito in Yugoslavia was able to build an eastern European communist state free from Stalinist control. </li></ul><ul><li>Tito’s success led Stalin to purge the Communist parties of Eastern Europe in an attempt to increase their obedience to him. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Reform and de-Stalinization <ul><li>Khrushchev and fellow reformers won the leadership of Russia over the conservatives , who wanted to make as few changes as possible in the Stalinist system. </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev denounced Stalin at the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956 and began a policy of liberalization. </li></ul><ul><li>The Soviet standard of living was improved, and greater intellectual freedom was allowed . </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, Pasternak was not allowed to accept the Nobel Prize in 1958 for Doctor Zhivago . </li></ul><ul><li>Solzhenitsyn’s book on life in a Stalinist camp, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, caused uproar when it was published in Russia in 1962 . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Peaceful Coexistence? <ul><li>Khrushchev pushed for “ peaceful coexistence ” with the West and a relaxation of cold war tensions . </li></ul><ul><li>De-Stalinization caused revolution in Eastern Europe in 1956. </li></ul><ul><li>Poland under Gomulka won greater autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary expelled Soviet troops in 1956 and declared its neutrality but was invaded by Russia and defeated. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The fall of Krushchev <ul><li>Re -Stalinization began with Khrushchev’s fall (1964) . </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev’s policy of de-Stalinization was opposed by conservatives , who saw it as a threat to the whole communist system. </li></ul><ul><li>Khrushchev’s erratic foreign policy was also an issue—he was successful in building the Berlin wall but was forced to back down on the installation of missiles in Cuba . </li></ul><ul><li>Brezhnev, who took over in 1964, stressed the ties with the Stalinist era and launched an arms buildup . </li></ul>
  7. 7. Questions for your review <ul><li>Where did the Big Three meet in 1943 to discuss the shaping of the postwar world? </li></ul><ul><li>Culture and art were purged in violent campaigns: anti-western conformity was imposed…. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin dies in 1953 – who comes into power? </li></ul><ul><li>The most dangerous Western – Soviet confrontation of the Cold War occurred over Soviet missiles in Cuba… what are the consequences? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences of “de-Stalinization”: </li></ul><ul><li>Why do conservatives overthrow Khrushchev? What factors lead to his ousting? </li></ul>

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