Soviet Eastern Europe
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Soviet Eastern Europe

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    Soviet Eastern Europe Soviet Eastern Europe Presentation Transcript

    • SOVIET EASTERN EUROPE Eastview High School – AP European History McKay et. al, 8 th ed. – Ch30 section 3
    • Essential Questions
      • What are the effects of Stalin’s policies on post WWII eastern Europe?
      • What are the effects of de-Stalinization in the Soviet Union?
    • Stalin after World War II
      • While the West surged ahead economically, Eastern Europe’s political, economic, and social developments were slow and uneven —nearly at a halt by the 1960s.
      • Stalin’s last years
        • The national unity of the war period ended in rigid dictatorship again . Similar to the totalitarianism of the 1930s.
        • Stalin began a new series of purges and enforced cultural conformity.
        • Soviet citizens living outside Russia were forced to return, and nearly a million of them, plus other Russians, died in labor camps .
        • Culture, art, and the Jewish religion were attacked.
        • Five-year plans were reintroduced ; heavy and military industry were given top priority, while consumer goods, housing, and agriculture were neglected.
        • Stalin’s system was exported to Eastern Europe.
      • Only Tito in Yugoslavia was able to build an eastern European communist state free from Stalinist control.
      • Tito’s success led Stalin to purge the Communist parties of Eastern Europe in an attempt to increase their obedience to him.
    • Reform and de-Stalinization
      • Khrushchev and fellow reformers won the leadership of Russia over the conservatives , who wanted to make as few changes as possible in the Stalinist system.
      • Khrushchev denounced Stalin at the Twentieth Party Congress in 1956 and began a policy of liberalization.
      • The Soviet standard of living was improved, and greater intellectual freedom was allowed .
      • Nevertheless, Pasternak was not allowed to accept the Nobel Prize in 1958 for Doctor Zhivago .
      • Solzhenitsyn’s book on life in a Stalinist camp, One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich, caused uproar when it was published in Russia in 1962 .
    • Peaceful Coexistence?
      • Khrushchev pushed for “ peaceful coexistence ” with the West and a relaxation of cold war tensions .
      • De-Stalinization caused revolution in Eastern Europe in 1956.
      • Poland under Gomulka won greater autonomy.
      • Hungary expelled Soviet troops in 1956 and declared its neutrality but was invaded by Russia and defeated.
    • The fall of Krushchev
      • Re -Stalinization began with Khrushchev’s fall (1964) .
      • Khrushchev’s policy of de-Stalinization was opposed by conservatives , who saw it as a threat to the whole communist system.
      • Khrushchev’s erratic foreign policy was also an issue—he was successful in building the Berlin wall but was forced to back down on the installation of missiles in Cuba .
      • Brezhnev, who took over in 1964, stressed the ties with the Stalinist era and launched an arms buildup .
    • Questions for your review
      • Where did the Big Three meet in 1943 to discuss the shaping of the postwar world?
      • Culture and art were purged in violent campaigns: anti-western conformity was imposed…. Why?
      • Stalin dies in 1953 – who comes into power?
      • The most dangerous Western – Soviet confrontation of the Cold War occurred over Soviet missiles in Cuba… what are the consequences?
      • What are the consequences of “de-Stalinization”:
      • Why do conservatives overthrow Khrushchev? What factors lead to his ousting?