Mc Kay Ch22 Sections 2 & 3 V2008
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  • 1. Industrialization in Continental Europe AND Capital and Labor c.e. 1815-1900 Eastview High School – AP European History Chapter 22 – The Revolution in Energy & Industry Sections 2 & 3 McKay et al. 8 th ed.
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • Why does industrialization come later and more cautiously on the continent than it did in Great Britain?
    • Why are the national variations so wide spread from country to country across the continent?
    • What are the essential differences and similarities to the British model?
    • What are the social consequences of the new industrialization?
  • 3. National Variations
    • 1750-1830 Britain industrialized faster than other countries. Twice as fast as France.
    • Belgium follows Britain, France grows gradually
    • 1913 Germany and US closing in on Britain, rest of Europe and Japan grows, while other Asian states lose ground (India, China)
  • 4. Challenge of Industrialization
    • Revolutions and wars on Continent slow economic growth
    • Tough to compete with GB. Economically and technologically they’re too advanced
    • Continental countries have three advantages
      • Rich traditions of putting-out enterprise, merchant capitalists, and urban artisans
      • Could simply copy the British ways of doing things
      • Power of strong, central governments could be used to promote industry
  • 5. Agents of Industrialization
    • Cockerill, in Belgium, brings British industry secrets to other parts of Europe
    • Harkort, in Germany, fails at industrializing the country. Shows how difficult duplicating British achievements can be
  • 6. Government’s Role
    • Governments aided industrialists by erecting tariffs, building roads/canals, and financing railroads
    • Thinkers and writers (List) believed industrialization would advance the nation “Economic Nationalism”
        • List supported tariff-free zone in Germany “Zollverein”
    • Banks played a more important role on the continent than in GB.
        • Industrial banks like Credit Mobilier became important in France and Germany.
        • These industrial banks mobilized savings of thousands of small investors and invested in railroads and industry.
  • 7. A New Class of Factory Owners
    • As Watt and Harkort illustrate, capitalist owners were locked into a highly competitive system
    • Early industrialists came from varied backgrounds
    • Some from merchant families, some from artisans backgrounds 
    • Quakers and Scots were important in Britain, while Protestants and Jews were important in France
    • As factories grew, opportunities declined
    • Wives and daughters of businessmen were shut out of business activity, were expected to concentrate on feminine and domestic activities.
  • 8. A New Class of Factory Workers
    • Many observers claimed that the Industrial Revolution brought misery to workers
    • Romantic poets Blake and Wordsworth protested life of workers, pollution of land and water
    • Luddites smashed new machines they thought were putting them out of work.
    • Engels attacked middle classes “ The Condition of the Working Class in England”
  • 9. The Life of a Factory Worker
    • Others such as Ure and Chadwick claimed life was improving for workers
    • Statistics of purchasing power of workers show little or no improvement between 1780 and 1820.
      • 1792-1815 living conditions actually decline while food prices rose faster than wages .
      • After 1840 some improvement occurs. Even though, hours of labor increased and unemployment also was present
    • Diet and supply of clothing improved, but housing did not.
  • 10. The Working Conditions
    • Working in factory meant more discipline and less personal freedom . Factory whistle replaced more relaxed pace of cottage work
    • Refusal of cottage workers to work in factory led to child labor
        • Use of pauper children forbidden in 1802.
        • Urban factories and coal mines attracted whole families and preserved kinship ties.
        • Children and parents work long hours
  • 11. Parliament and Child Labor
    • Robert Owen proposes limiting hours of labor and child labor
    • Factory Act of 1833 limits child labor and number of hours children can work in textile factories .
    • Factory owners required to establish elementary schools for children of employees
    • Subcontracting led to close relationship between subcontractor and work crew.
        • Subcontracting helped maintain kinship ties
  • 12. Sexual Division of Labor
    • New pattern of “separate spheres” emerged.
        • Men were primary wage earner, women had limited opportunities
        • Married women were less likely to work outside the home after 1 st child born
        • Women confined to low-paying, dead-end jobs
    • Reasons for reorganization along gender lines is debated
        • Deeply ingrained “patriarchal tradition” from pre-industrial craft guilds.
        • Factory discipline conflicted with women’s priority with children
        • Sexual division was to control the sexuality of working-class youth
        • Conditions in coal mines illustrate this.
  • 13. Early Labor Movement
    • Many jobs changed slowly. Farm and domestic labor was still most common. Small-scale handicraft production unchanged in many crafts.
    • Working class solidarity and class consciousness developed, many employers saw unions as a restriction on industrial growth.
      • Combination Act of 1799, outlawed unions and strikes
      • 1813-1814 law ended wage regulations allowed labor market to flood with women and children
    • Workers continued to strike, Combination Acts repealed in 1824 .
    • Owen and others tried to create a national union of workers. After 1851 “New Model Unions” won benefits for their members.
    • Chartism was workers political movement. Sought universal male suffrage, shorter work hours, cheap bread.
  • 14. Questions for your review
    • What are some of the difficulties faced by the continental economies in their efforts to compete with the British?
    • Who was William Cockerill and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Freidrich List and what is his contribution to this history?
    • What role did continental banks play with regard to industrialization?
    • How would you characterize railroad construction on the continent?
    • How did the early industrialists get labor and capital?
    • What does Engels put forth in his work The Condition of the Working Class in England ?
    • Why were family units hired in the early factories?
    • When do members of the British working class see improvements?
    • What is the impact of the Factory Act of 1833?
    • Explain the scholarly debate about the origins of the sexual division of labor during the Industrial Revolution?
    • What is the “Amalgamated Society of Engineers?
    • What is the impact of the Combination Acts on the labor movement?
    • What is the Chartist movement and what are the key demands?
    • What is the Mines Act of 1842…what impact does it have on labor?