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Ideologies & Upheavals Section 1 V2008

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  • 1. Ideologies & Upheavals c.e. 1815-1848 Eastview High School – AP European History A History of Western Society Ch23 Section 1 – The Peace Agreement McKay et al. 8 th ed.
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • How do the European powers attempt to achieve balance of power throughout Europe after the Napoleonic empire?
    • How did the political revolution, detailed in France and resisted by European monarchs, eventually break out again after 1815?
    • How does the “dual revolution” shape the ideologies of the nineteenth century?
  • 3. Balance of Power
    • The victors (mainly the alliance of Russia, Austria, Prussia, and Great Britain) restored the French boundaries of 1792 and the Bourbon dynasty.
    • They made other changes in the boundaries of Europe, establishing Prussia as a “sentinel” against France, and created a new kingdom out of Belgium and Holland.
  • 4. Balance of Power (continued)
    • It was believed that the concept of the balance of power, an international equilibrium of political and military forces, would preserve peace in Europe.
    • But the demands of the victors, especially the Prussians and the Russians, for compensation threatened the balance.
  • 5. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815
    • Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria:
      • Balance of power throughout Europe
      • Gave up territories in Belgium and southern Germany
      • Expanded by taking Venetia and Lombardy in northern Italy AND land on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea
    • Robert Castlereagh of Great Britain:
      • Balance of power throughout Europe
      • Won colonies and strategic outposts and desired freedom of the seas
      • Sought to eliminate French threat to its commercial interests
  • 6. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815
    • Tsar Alexander I of Russia:
      • Wanted to restore and rule Poland - this was too much according to Metternich & Castlereagh
      • Ended up with a smaller version of the Polish kingdom
    • Prince Karl Hardenberg of Prussia:
      • Wanted the large and wealthy kingdom of Saxony - this was too much according to Metternich & Castlereagh
      • Ended up with part of Saxony instead of the whole - approximately 2/5
  • 7. The Representatives at the Congress of Vienna, 1815
    • Charles Talleyrand of France:
      • Balance of power throughout Europe
      • Boundaries restored to what they were in 1792
      • Lost Caribbean possessions to Great Britain
      • Pay an indemnity of 700 million Francs
      • Support an occupational army for five years
  • 8. Intervention & Repression
    • Under Metternich, Austria, Prussia, and Russia led a crusade against liberalism.
      • They formed a Holy Alliance to check future liberal and revolutionary activity.
  • 9. Conservative Ideology
    • When liberals succeeded in Spain and in the Two Sicilies, the Holy Alliance intervened to restore conservatism.
    • However, Britain blocked intervention in Latin America and encouraged the Monroe Doctrine (1823).
  • 10. The Carlsbad Decrees
    • Metternich’s policies also dominated the German Confederation.
    • Metternich had the Carlsbad Decrees issued in 1819.
    • These decrees repressed subversive ideas and organizations.
  • 11. Metternich and Conservatism
    • Metternich represented the view that the best state blended monarchy, bureaucracy, and aristocracy.
    • He hated liberalism, which he claimed stirred up the lower classes and caused war and bloodshed.
    • Liberalism also stirred up national aspirations in central Europe, which could lead to war and the breakup of the Austrian Empire.
    • The empire, which was dominated by the minority Germans, contained many ethnic groups, including Hungarians & Czechs, which was a potential source of weakness & dissatisfaction.
  • 12. Questions for your review
    • What principles guided the victorious allies at the Congress of Vienna?
    • What were the main resolutions of the peace settlement arranged in Vienna in 1815?
    • Why did France and Austria intervene in Spain and Italy respectively?
    • What were the Carlsbad Decrees?
    • What was the Holy Alliance? What was its purpose?
    • Why did Metternich believe in conservatism?