Hitler And Nazism In Germany (1921 1945)
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Hitler And Nazism In Germany (1921 1945) Hitler And Nazism In Germany (1921 1945) Presentation Transcript

  • HITLER AND NAZISM IN GERMANY (1921-1945) Eastview High School – AP European History McKay, et al., 8 th edition – Ch29 Section 4
  • Essential Questions
    • What conditions exist in Germany which afford the opportunity for Hitler to come to power?
    • Why don’t other European countries check Hitler’s aggressive acts and policies?
    • Why do the German people follow Hitler’s plan of a ‘final solution’?
  • The Roots of Nazism
    • Hitler was born in Austria, was a school dropout, and was rejected by the Imperial art school.
    • Hitler became a fanatical nationalist while in Vienna, where he absorbed anti-Semitic and racist ideas.
    • He adopted the ideas of some fanatical Christians (e.g. Lueger) that capitalism and liberalism resulted in excessive individualism .
    • He became obsessed with anti-Semitism and racism , and believed that Jews and Marxists lost the First World War for Germany.
      • He believed in a Jewish-Marxian plot to destroy German culture.
  • The Nazi Party
    • By 1921, he had reshaped the tiny extremist German Workers’ group into the Nazi party, using the mass rally as a particularly effective tool of propaganda .
      • The party grew rapidly.
      • Hitler and the party attempted to overthrow the Weimar government, but he was defeated and sent to jail (1923).
  • Hitler’s Road to Power
    • The trial after Hitler’s attempted coup brought him much publicity, but the Nazi party remained small until 1929.
      • Written in jail, his autobiography, Mein Kampf, was an outline of his desire to achieve German racial supremacy and domination of Europe , under the leadership of a dictator (Fuhrer).
      • The depression made the Nazi party attractive to the lower middle class and to young people , who were seized by panic as unemployment soared and Communists made election gains.
  • The German Reichstag
    • By 1932, the Nazi party was the largest in the Reichstag.
    • The Weimar government’s orthodox economic policies intensified the economic collapse and convinced the middle class that its leaders were incompetent ; hence, they welcomed Hitler’s attacks on the republican system.
    • Another reason Hitler won is that the Communists welcomed Hitler as the last breath of monopoly capitalism.
    • Hitler was a skilled politician, a master of propaganda and mass psychology who generated enormous emotional support with his speeches .
    • Conservative and nationalistic politicians believed that they could control Hitler; Hitler was legally appointed chancellor in 1933.
    The German Reichstag in Berlin
  • The Nazi State & Society
    • The Enabling Act of March 1933 gave Hitler absolute dictatorial power .
    • Nazis took over every aspect of German life —political, social, economic, cultural, and intellectual.
    • Germany became a one-party state ; only the Nazi party was legal.
    • Strikes were forbidden and labor unions abolished.
    • Publishing houses and universities were brought under Nazi control, and life became violently anti-intellectual .
    • Hitler took over total control of the military by purging the storm troopers .
    • The Gestapo, or secret police , used terror and purges to strengthen Hitler’s hold on power.
    • Hitler set out to eliminate the Jews.
    • The Nuremberg Laws (1935) deprived Jews of their citizenship .
    • Jews were constant victims of violence and outrages.
  • Hitler’s Popularity
    • Hitler promised and delivered economic recovery through public works projects and military spending .
    • Unemployment dropped and the standard of living rose.
    • Those who were not Jews, Slavs, Gypsies, Jehovah’s Witnesses, communists, or homosexuals experienced greater opportunities and equality .
    • Hitler reduced Germany’s traditional class distinctions; the old ruling elites had to give way to lower-middle-class people in Hitler’s reign.
    • Yet few historians believe that Hitler brought on a real social revolution : The well-educated classes held on to their advantaged position, and women remained largely housewives and mothers .
    • He appealed to Germans for nationalistic reasons .
    • Communists, trade unionists, and some Christians opposed Hitler; many who opposed him were executed.
    “ We National Socialists believe that in political affairs Adolf Hitler is infallible.” - Herman Goering
  • Questions for your review
    • What was the common link between Nazi Germany, Stalinist Soviet Union, and Fascist Italy?
    • How did Chancellor Bruning attempt to cope with the Great Depression? What was the result?
    • What were the main themes that Hitler outlined in Mein Kampf ?
    • What was the most important factor that contributed to Hitler’s success in his rise to power?
    • According to historian D. Goldhagen, who were willing accomplices in the “final solution”?
    • What was the Enabling Act and how did it come about?
    • Why does Hitler purge the SA?
    • What was the purpose of the Nuremberg Laws?
    • How does Hitler bring about economic recovery?
    • What was the status of women under Hitler’s reign?
    • How did Hitler appeal to the masses? What happened to those who opposed him?