Ch24.3&4 The Changing Family & Science V2008

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Ch24.3&4 The Changing Family & Science V2008

  1. 1. THE CHANGING FAMILY & SCIENCE AND THOUGHT OF THE 19 TH CENTURY Eastview High School – AP European History Ch24 – Life in the Emerging Urban Society Section 3 – The Changing Family Section 4 – Science & Thought of the 19 th Century McKay et al. 8 th edition
  2. 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS <ul><li>How did families change as they coped with the challenges and opportunities of the developing urban civilization? </li></ul><ul><li>What changes in science and thought reflected and influenced this new civilization? </li></ul>
  3. 3. PREMARITAL SEX & MARRIAGE <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there a decline in illegitimacy rates after 1850? </li></ul><ul><li>For the middle classes, economic considerations continued to be paramount in choosing marriage partners through most of the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing economic well-being allowed members of the working class to select marriage partners based more on romance. </li></ul><ul><li>Prostitution was common. </li></ul><ul><li>Middle- and upper-class men frequently visited prostitutes. </li></ul>
  4. 4. GENDER ROLES & FAMILY LIFE <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>What types of jobs were husbands and wives able to get where they could work together after 1850? </li></ul><ul><li>What differences existed b/w feminists inspired by socialism and middle-class feminists? </li></ul><ul><li>What positive aspect was created with the rigid separation of men and women in society? </li></ul><ul><li>Kinship ties helped working-class people to cope with sickness, unemployment, death, and old age. </li></ul><ul><li>The status of women changed during the nineteenth century. </li></ul><ul><li>The division of labor became more defined by gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic inferiority led some women to organize for equality and women’s rights. </li></ul><ul><li>As society increasingly relegated women to the domestic sphere, women gained control over household finances and the education of children. </li></ul><ul><li>Married couples developed stronger emotional ties to each other. </li></ul>
  5. 5. CHILD REARING <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Why was there a reduction in the size of the European family? </li></ul><ul><li>What was Freud’s general thesis? </li></ul><ul><li>Mr., Mrs., and Baby ? </li></ul><ul><li>My Secret Life? </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes toward children also changed during this period. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional ties between mothers and infants deepened. </li></ul><ul><li>There was more breast-feeding and less swaddling and abandonment of babies. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased connection often meant increased control, including attempts to repress the child’s sexuality. </li></ul>
  6. 6. THE TRIUMPH OF SCIENCE <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Where did theoretical science find practical applications… what fields? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the consequences of the triumph of science and technology? </li></ul><ul><li>Theoretical discoveries resulted in practical benefits, as in chemistry and electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific achievements gave science considerable prestige. </li></ul>
  7. 7. CHARLES DARWIN <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>What was Darwin’s theory of evolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the social consequences of Darwin’s theory? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the theory of Social Darwinism? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Herbert Spencer and how is his contribution significant? </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in the conceptions of the universe, man, and religion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Charles Darwin and the impact of the theory of evolution – he postulated that species change and survive because of chance, not a divinely-ordained purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He believed nature is a struggle among organisms for survival – life is not intended to be harmonious a.k.a. survival of the fittest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Darwin’s theory challenged Biblical account of creation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Darwinism – applying the principles of biological evolution to human society. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain people are more able to adapt and compete and the poor just don’t “fit” or try hard enough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Herbert Spencer , another Social Darwinist, postulated that the poor were the “ill-fated weak and the prosperous were the chosen strong.” </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SOCIAL SCIENCES <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Comte and what was positivist method? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Dmitri Mendeleev and what are his scientific contributions? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Michael Faraday and what are his scientific contributions? </li></ul><ul><li>New “social sciences” used data collected by states to test theories. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auguste Comte, a French philosopher, wrote the six-volume System of Positive Philosophy – he postulated that all intellectual activity progresses through predictable stages: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theological or fictitious – a necessary point of departure of human understanding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metaphysical or abstract – a transition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific or positive – the fixed and definitive state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Darwinists such as Spencer applied Darwin’s ideas to human affairs. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. THE REALIST MOVEMENT <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Realist writers – what did they attempt to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Sister Carrie? </li></ul><ul><li>The World of Yesterday? </li></ul><ul><li>Emile Zola? </li></ul><ul><li>Feodor Dostoevski? </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Comedy? </li></ul><ul><li>The Realist Movement in literature reflected the ethos of European society. </li></ul><ul><li>This was an expression of writers who sought to depict life as it really was. </li></ul><ul><li>Realism stressed the hereditary and environmental determinants of human behavior. </li></ul>
  10. 10. ARE YOU READY? <ul><li>Complete the reading </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the study guide </li></ul><ul><li>Review your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the material on the Blog </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to the podcast/slidecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Answer the questions on the podcast/slidecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Examine any questions you missed on the quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Scholar-up! </li></ul>

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