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Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008
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Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008

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  • 1. Taming the City Eastview High School - AP European History Ch24: Life in the Emerging Urban Society Section 1 – Taming the City McKay et al. 8 th edition
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • What was life like in the cities, and how did it change?
    • What did the emergence of urban industrial society mean for rich and poor and those in between?
  • 3. The Walking City
    • Since the middle ages, European cities have served as centers of government, culture, and commerce
    • They were also very congested, dirty, and unhealthy
    • People were packed together – the city limits were tight and people walked as it was the only available form of transportation
  • 4. Infectious Diseases
    • Disease would spread quickly in a city – people were more likely to die prematurely in a city than in the countryside
    • Cities kept their populations because there were always newcomers from the rural areas
  • 5. Challenge of Urban Growth
    • The Industrial Revolution brought more people into the city than ever before – the affects revealed the need for change
    • Populations in British cities were growing at a rate of 40-70% per decade
    • The conditions that people lived in were incredibly unsanitary and over crowded
  • 6. Challenge of Urban Growth
    • Sewage flowed freely through the streets as well as garbage – the warm days of summer would help deliver an over-powering stench and accompanying unsanitary conditions
    • Some courtyards became dung hills that would sometimes be sold off as fertilizer
    • Evidence shows that the decent cottage was the exception, the hovel the rule
    • Ordinary people took dirt and filth for granted – it was simply a part of their lifestyle
  • 7. Greatest good for the greatest number
    • Jeremy Bentham was a philosopher who taught that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the greatest good for the greatest number .
    • Edwin Chadwick was a commissioner who was responsible to administer relief for paupers under Britain’s revised Poor Law of 1834.
  • 8. Chadwick’s sanitary idea
    • Chadwick was a firm believer in Jeremy Bentham’s philosophies
    • Chadwick’s “sanitary idea” was that public health would improve by cleaning up the urban environment
    • He theorized that communal outhouses could be cleaned by providing running water and sewers for far less money than the current practice of carrying away the filth
    • His ideas were implemented and won support from other countries
  • 9. Miasmatic Theory
    • Early reformers such as Chadwick were seriously handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease.
    • The miasmatic theory contested that bad smells from excrement and decay cause disease.
    • It was a reasonable theory to make given the data that was available.
    • Bad drinking water was discovered to also cause disease which weakened the miasmatic theory.
  • 10. Pasteur’s Germ Theory
    • Louis Pasteur, a French chemist was hired to study the fermentation process by brewers
    • He discovered that living organisms were responsible for fermentation and could be suppressed by heating the beverage – by “pasteurizing” it.
  • 11. Robert Koch
    • Robert Koch, a German country doctor developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles – this allowed other researchers to identify organisms responsible for diseases.
  • 12. The Antiseptic Principle
    • Joseph Lister, an English surgeon, also studying Pasteur’s insights, grasped that airborne bacteria would lead to infected patients.
    • He reasoned that by destroying the air born particles he could disinfect the wound – the “antiseptic principle” had an immediate impact on the medical world.
  • 13. The Modernization of Paris
    • Napoleon III employed Georges Haussman as city planner of Paris with an intent to redefine and update the city.
    • Paris was a labyrinth of narrow, dark streets with terrible living conditions for the lower class citizens.
  • 14. Refitting Paris c.e.1850
    • Haussman and his team tore down buildings to create long, wide boulevards that led to the center of the city.
    • They also built a system of aqueducts to double the amount of fresh water that was brought into the city.
  • 15. Paris – the city of light
    • Haussman and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city which they did as it stand as one of the most beautiful in the world today
    • Other cities followed the example set by Paris – such as Vienna and Cologne
  • 16. Developing Public Transportation
    • Electric streetcars which were developed in America, were adopted by the Europeans and it had an immediate affect on the citizens
    • The development of this kind of public transport was very popular and allowed for people to live in the outer areas of the city
    • This helped reduce the population pressure associated with the crowded inner city as people could live further out and then commute into the city
  • 17. Questions for your review
    • Describe the conditions of early cities and compare the conditions with the emergence of the Industrial Revolution.
    • Describe the living conditions for the poor in the cities of the Industrial Revolution.
    • Who was Edwin Chadwick and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who was Jeremy Bentham and what is his contribution to this history?
    • What is the miasmatic theory?
    • Who is Louis Pasteur and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Robert Koch and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Joseph Lister and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Georges Haussman and what is his contribution to this history?
    • How were cities redesigned to benefit citizens?
    • How were governments involved in the development of cities?