Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008


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Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008

  1. 1. Taming the City Eastview High School - AP European History Ch24: Life in the Emerging Urban Society Section 1 – Taming the City McKay et al. 8 th edition
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>What was life like in the cities, and how did it change? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the emergence of urban industrial society mean for rich and poor and those in between? </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Walking City <ul><li>Since the middle ages, European cities have served as centers of government, culture, and commerce </li></ul><ul><li>They were also very congested, dirty, and unhealthy </li></ul><ul><li>People were packed together – the city limits were tight and people walked as it was the only available form of transportation </li></ul>
  4. 4. Infectious Diseases <ul><li>Disease would spread quickly in a city – people were more likely to die prematurely in a city than in the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Cities kept their populations because there were always newcomers from the rural areas </li></ul>
  5. 5. Challenge of Urban Growth <ul><li>The Industrial Revolution brought more people into the city than ever before – the affects revealed the need for change </li></ul><ul><li>Populations in British cities were growing at a rate of 40-70% per decade </li></ul><ul><li>The conditions that people lived in were incredibly unsanitary and over crowded </li></ul>
  6. 6. Challenge of Urban Growth <ul><li>Sewage flowed freely through the streets as well as garbage – the warm days of summer would help deliver an over-powering stench and accompanying unsanitary conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Some courtyards became dung hills that would sometimes be sold off as fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence shows that the decent cottage was the exception, the hovel the rule </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary people took dirt and filth for granted – it was simply a part of their lifestyle </li></ul>
  7. 7. Greatest good for the greatest number <ul><li>Jeremy Bentham was a philosopher who taught that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the greatest good for the greatest number . </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin Chadwick was a commissioner who was responsible to administer relief for paupers under Britain’s revised Poor Law of 1834. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chadwick’s sanitary idea <ul><li>Chadwick was a firm believer in Jeremy Bentham’s philosophies </li></ul><ul><li>Chadwick’s “sanitary idea” was that public health would improve by cleaning up the urban environment </li></ul><ul><li>He theorized that communal outhouses could be cleaned by providing running water and sewers for far less money than the current practice of carrying away the filth </li></ul><ul><li>His ideas were implemented and won support from other countries </li></ul>
  9. 9. Miasmatic Theory <ul><li>Early reformers such as Chadwick were seriously handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease. </li></ul><ul><li>The miasmatic theory contested that bad smells from excrement and decay cause disease. </li></ul><ul><li>It was a reasonable theory to make given the data that was available. </li></ul><ul><li>Bad drinking water was discovered to also cause disease which weakened the miasmatic theory. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pasteur’s Germ Theory <ul><li>Louis Pasteur, a French chemist was hired to study the fermentation process by brewers </li></ul><ul><li>He discovered that living organisms were responsible for fermentation and could be suppressed by heating the beverage – by “pasteurizing” it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Robert Koch <ul><li>Robert Koch, a German country doctor developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles – this allowed other researchers to identify organisms responsible for diseases. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Antiseptic Principle <ul><li>Joseph Lister, an English surgeon, also studying Pasteur’s insights, grasped that airborne bacteria would lead to infected patients. </li></ul><ul><li>He reasoned that by destroying the air born particles he could disinfect the wound – the “antiseptic principle” had an immediate impact on the medical world. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Modernization of Paris <ul><li>Napoleon III employed Georges Haussman as city planner of Paris with an intent to redefine and update the city. </li></ul><ul><li>Paris was a labyrinth of narrow, dark streets with terrible living conditions for the lower class citizens. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Refitting Paris c.e.1850 <ul><li>Haussman and his team tore down buildings to create long, wide boulevards that led to the center of the city. </li></ul><ul><li>They also built a system of aqueducts to double the amount of fresh water that was brought into the city. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Paris – the city of light <ul><li>Haussman and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city which they did as it stand as one of the most beautiful in the world today </li></ul><ul><li>Other cities followed the example set by Paris – such as Vienna and Cologne </li></ul>
  16. 16. Developing Public Transportation <ul><li>Electric streetcars which were developed in America, were adopted by the Europeans and it had an immediate affect on the citizens </li></ul><ul><li>The development of this kind of public transport was very popular and allowed for people to live in the outer areas of the city </li></ul><ul><li>This helped reduce the population pressure associated with the crowded inner city as people could live further out and then commute into the city </li></ul>
  17. 17. Questions for your review <ul><li>Describe the conditions of early cities and compare the conditions with the emergence of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the living conditions for the poor in the cities of the Industrial Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Edwin Chadwick and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Jeremy Bentham and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the miasmatic theory? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Louis Pasteur and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Robert Koch and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Joseph Lister and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Georges Haussman and what is his contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>How were cities redesigned to benefit citizens? </li></ul><ul><li>How were governments involved in the development of cities? </li></ul>