Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.


Saving this for later?

Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime - even offline.

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Ch24.1 Taming The City V2008


Published on

Published in: Technology, Art & Photos

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Taming the City Eastview High School - AP European History Ch24: Life in the Emerging Urban Society Section 1 – Taming the City McKay et al. 8 th edition
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • What was life like in the cities, and how did it change?
    • What did the emergence of urban industrial society mean for rich and poor and those in between?
  • 3. The Walking City
    • Since the middle ages, European cities have served as centers of government, culture, and commerce
    • They were also very congested, dirty, and unhealthy
    • People were packed together – the city limits were tight and people walked as it was the only available form of transportation
  • 4. Infectious Diseases
    • Disease would spread quickly in a city – people were more likely to die prematurely in a city than in the countryside
    • Cities kept their populations because there were always newcomers from the rural areas
  • 5. Challenge of Urban Growth
    • The Industrial Revolution brought more people into the city than ever before – the affects revealed the need for change
    • Populations in British cities were growing at a rate of 40-70% per decade
    • The conditions that people lived in were incredibly unsanitary and over crowded
  • 6. Challenge of Urban Growth
    • Sewage flowed freely through the streets as well as garbage – the warm days of summer would help deliver an over-powering stench and accompanying unsanitary conditions
    • Some courtyards became dung hills that would sometimes be sold off as fertilizer
    • Evidence shows that the decent cottage was the exception, the hovel the rule
    • Ordinary people took dirt and filth for granted – it was simply a part of their lifestyle
  • 7. Greatest good for the greatest number
    • Jeremy Bentham was a philosopher who taught that public problems ought to be dealt with on a rational, scientific basis and according to the greatest good for the greatest number .
    • Edwin Chadwick was a commissioner who was responsible to administer relief for paupers under Britain’s revised Poor Law of 1834.
  • 8. Chadwick’s sanitary idea
    • Chadwick was a firm believer in Jeremy Bentham’s philosophies
    • Chadwick’s “sanitary idea” was that public health would improve by cleaning up the urban environment
    • He theorized that communal outhouses could be cleaned by providing running water and sewers for far less money than the current practice of carrying away the filth
    • His ideas were implemented and won support from other countries
  • 9. Miasmatic Theory
    • Early reformers such as Chadwick were seriously handicapped by the prevailing miasmatic theory of disease.
    • The miasmatic theory contested that bad smells from excrement and decay cause disease.
    • It was a reasonable theory to make given the data that was available.
    • Bad drinking water was discovered to also cause disease which weakened the miasmatic theory.
  • 10. Pasteur’s Germ Theory
    • Louis Pasteur, a French chemist was hired to study the fermentation process by brewers
    • He discovered that living organisms were responsible for fermentation and could be suppressed by heating the beverage – by “pasteurizing” it.
  • 11. Robert Koch
    • Robert Koch, a German country doctor developed pure cultures of harmful bacteria and described their life cycles – this allowed other researchers to identify organisms responsible for diseases.
  • 12. The Antiseptic Principle
    • Joseph Lister, an English surgeon, also studying Pasteur’s insights, grasped that airborne bacteria would lead to infected patients.
    • He reasoned that by destroying the air born particles he could disinfect the wound – the “antiseptic principle” had an immediate impact on the medical world.
  • 13. The Modernization of Paris
    • Napoleon III employed Georges Haussman as city planner of Paris with an intent to redefine and update the city.
    • Paris was a labyrinth of narrow, dark streets with terrible living conditions for the lower class citizens.
  • 14. Refitting Paris c.e.1850
    • Haussman and his team tore down buildings to create long, wide boulevards that led to the center of the city.
    • They also built a system of aqueducts to double the amount of fresh water that was brought into the city.
  • 15. Paris – the city of light
    • Haussman and Napoleon III tried to make Paris a more beautiful city which they did as it stand as one of the most beautiful in the world today
    • Other cities followed the example set by Paris – such as Vienna and Cologne
  • 16. Developing Public Transportation
    • Electric streetcars which were developed in America, were adopted by the Europeans and it had an immediate affect on the citizens
    • The development of this kind of public transport was very popular and allowed for people to live in the outer areas of the city
    • This helped reduce the population pressure associated with the crowded inner city as people could live further out and then commute into the city
  • 17. Questions for your review
    • Describe the conditions of early cities and compare the conditions with the emergence of the Industrial Revolution.
    • Describe the living conditions for the poor in the cities of the Industrial Revolution.
    • Who was Edwin Chadwick and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who was Jeremy Bentham and what is his contribution to this history?
    • What is the miasmatic theory?
    • Who is Louis Pasteur and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Robert Koch and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Joseph Lister and what is his contribution to this history?
    • Who is Georges Haussman and what is his contribution to this history?
    • How were cities redesigned to benefit citizens?
    • How were governments involved in the development of cities?