Ch21 Section 4   World War And Republican France
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  • 1. World War and Republican France 1791-1799 AP European History – Eastview High School Ch21 Section 4 – World War and Republican France, 1791-99 (McKay, et al., 8 th ed.)
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • Why does the Revolution take such a drastic turn from it’s original intention (liberty & equality)?
    • Who are the key figures of the Second Revolution and the Terror?
    • What are the causes and consequences of France’s wars with the European Coalitions?
  • 3. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War
    • Edmund Burke published the classic critique of the French Revolution, Reflections on the Revolution in France , in 1790.
    • Q: What was Burke’s position concerning the French Revolution?
  • 4. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War
    • Mary Wollstonecraft published her rebuttal, A Vindication of the Rights of Man in the same year.
    • Wollstonecraft and the French woman Olympe de Gouges argued that women should be included in the liberal ideal of equality.
  • 5. The Radical Shift of the Revolution
    • In the summer and fall of 1791 the Revolution was radicalized by several events.
      • a) Louis XVI’s attempt to escape France
      • b) Austria and Prussia’s declaration of readiness to intervene in France under certain conditions
      • c) The election of a new Legislative Assembly under a new constitution
    • Q: What is the Declaration of Pilnitz and what is it’s effect on the Revolution?
  • 6. France at War with Austria & Prussia
    • By the summer of 1792 France was at war with Austria and Prussia and the Legislative Assembly had removed Louis XVI from the throne.
  • 7. The Second Revolution (1792)
    • Members of the newly elected National Convention declared France a Republic in September 1792.
    • Revolutionaries tried to create a new revolutionary French culture.
    • Q: Who were the Jacobins and what is their role in the Revolution?
  • 8. The Jacobins
    • Started as a debating club/society; they held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris.
    • Membership was primarily composed of middle class lawyers and merchants and they created a vast network of clubs.
  • 9. The Political Spectrum of France (1790) 1790s: Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Jacobins Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) The Plain (swing votes)
  • 10. The Execution of Louis XVI
    • The Convention tried and executed Louis XVI on charges of treason.
  • 11. The Execution of Marie Antoinette
  • 12. The Radical Phase of the Revolution
    • The sans culottes , or working people of Paris, exercised a strong influence on the Convention.
    • Q: Who were the sans culottes and what is their role in the Revolution?
  • 13. Contrasting Perspectives
    • The two paintings represent the French and English versions of sans culottes women. Can you identify which version is French and which is English?
  • 14. Total War and The Terror
    • Military defeats prompted the revolutionary government, led by the Committee of Public Safety , to establish a primitive sort of centrally controlled economy, with fixed prices for bread, rationing, tight control of munitions industry, and other controls.
    • The Committee of Public Safety was created to speed up the work of the government during the crisis; the Committee was headed by Robespierre.
  • 15. Revolutionary Tribunals in Paris
    • Purpose was to try suspected counter-revolutionaries; led by the Committee of General Security.
      • Responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, and other internal security matters.
    • The Terror aimed to crush all opponents of the Revolution . About 40,000 French were executed in the Terror and 300,000 suspects were arrested.
  • 16. Key Characters of the Terror
    • Maximilien Robespierre, a member of the “Mountain” led the Committee of Public Safety and were given essentially dictatorial powers to deal with the “national emergency.”
  • 17. Key Characters of the Terror
    • Georges Jacques Danton, also a member of the radical “Mountain” who was a friend of the working people of Paris and an amazingly gregarious orator.
  • 18. Key Characters of the Terror
    • Jean-Paul Marat, publisher of a popular Parisian newspaper who used his position to forward the agenda of the Committee of Public Safety.
  • 19. The Death of Marat
    • Marat is stabbed and killed by Charlotte Corday
    • The painter, Jacques-Louis David helped to make Marat a martyr with this infamous painting.
  • 20. The French Military & the Terror
    • France mobilized a huge number (800,000) of motivated soldiers by instituting a draft and encouraging patriotic sentiment.
    • Outnumbering their opponents by perhaps 4 to 1, France won great battlefield victories .
    • These wars gave rise to a young general named Napoleon Bonaparte.
  • 21. The Thermidorian Reaction
    • The Convention, fearing the expansion of the Terror, executed Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794.
  • 22. The Directory
    • A new executive, the five-man Directory , ruled France from 1795  1799, essentially as dictators .
    • The end of economic controls hit the poor in Paris hard, and resulted in riots that were suppressed by force.
    • In rural France villagers, especially women, restored a normal, structured lifestyle, based in part on the Catholic Church.
  • 23. Questions for your review
    • What was Edmund Burke’s position on the French Revolution?
    • Who was Wollstonecraft and what is her contribution to this history?
    • Who was de Gouges and what is her contribution to this history?
    • Who were the Jacobins and what is their role in the Revolution?
    • What is the Declaration of Pillnitz? What is the effect on the Revolution?
    • Who were the sans-culottes and what is their role in the Revolution?
    • Who were the Girondists? Who were the Mountain? What role do they play in the Revolution?
    • Which party did Robespierre and Danton belong to?
    • What is the Committee of Public Safety?
    • What were the “September Massacres”?
    • Counter-revolutionaries and ‘The Terror’...what is the impact on this history?
    • How does ‘The Terror’ finally end?
    • Which ‘Coalitions’ try to defeat France from 1794-1798?
    • What is the Thermidorian Reaction?