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World War and Republican France 1791-1799 AP European History – Eastview High School Ch21 Section 4 – World War and Republ...
Essential Questions <ul><li>Why does the Revolution take such a drastic turn from it’s original intention (liberty & equal...
Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War <ul><li>Edmund Burke  published the classic critique of the French Revolution, ...
Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft  published her rebuttal,  A Vindication of the Righ...
The Radical Shift of the Revolution <ul><li>In the summer and fall of 1791 the Revolution was  radicalized by several even...
France at War with Austria & Prussia <ul><li>By the  summer of 1792 France was at war with Austria and Prussia  and the Le...
The Second Revolution (1792) <ul><li>Members of the newly elected  National Convention declared France a Republic  in Sept...
The Jacobins <ul><li>Started as a debating club/society; they held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monas...
The Political Spectrum of France (1790) 1790s: Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Jacobins Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) The...
The Execution of Louis XVI <ul><li>The Convention tried and executed Louis XVI on charges of treason. </li></ul>
The Execution of Marie Antoinette
The Radical Phase of the Revolution <ul><li>The  sans culottes , or working people of Paris, exercised a strong influence ...
Contrasting Perspectives <ul><li>The two paintings represent the French and English versions of  sans culottes  women.  Ca...
Total War and The Terror <ul><li>Military defeats prompted the revolutionary government, led by the  Committee of Public S...
Revolutionary Tribunals in Paris <ul><li>Purpose was to try suspected counter-revolutionaries; led by the Committee of Gen...
Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre, a member of the “Mountain” led the Committee of Public Safety...
Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Georges Jacques Danton, also a member of the radical “Mountain” who was a friend of t...
Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Jean-Paul Marat, publisher of a popular Parisian newspaper who used his position to f...
The Death of Marat <ul><li>Marat is stabbed and killed by Charlotte Corday </li></ul><ul><li>The painter, Jacques-Louis Da...
The French Military & the Terror <ul><li>France mobilized a huge number (800,000) of motivated soldiers by instituting a d...
The Thermidorian Reaction <ul><li>The Convention, fearing the expansion of the Terror, executed Maximilien Robespierre in ...
The Directory <ul><li>A new executive, the  five-man Directory , ruled France from 1795  1799,  essentially as dictators ...
Questions for your review <ul><li>What was Edmund Burke’s position on the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Wol...
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Ch21 Section 4 World War And Republican France

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Transcript of "Ch21 Section 4 World War And Republican France"

  1. 1. World War and Republican France 1791-1799 AP European History – Eastview High School Ch21 Section 4 – World War and Republican France, 1791-99 (McKay, et al., 8 th ed.)
  2. 2. Essential Questions <ul><li>Why does the Revolution take such a drastic turn from it’s original intention (liberty & equality)? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are the key figures of the Second Revolution and the Terror? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the causes and consequences of France’s wars with the European Coalitions? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War <ul><li>Edmund Burke published the classic critique of the French Revolution, Reflections on the Revolution in France , in 1790. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: What was Burke’s position concerning the French Revolution? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Foreign Reactions and the Beginning of War <ul><li>Mary Wollstonecraft published her rebuttal, A Vindication of the Rights of Man in the same year. </li></ul><ul><li>Wollstonecraft and the French woman Olympe de Gouges argued that women should be included in the liberal ideal of equality. </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Radical Shift of the Revolution <ul><li>In the summer and fall of 1791 the Revolution was radicalized by several events. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a) Louis XVI’s attempt to escape France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>b) Austria and Prussia’s declaration of readiness to intervene in France under certain conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>c) The election of a new Legislative Assembly under a new constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Q: What is the Declaration of Pilnitz and what is it’s effect on the Revolution? </li></ul>
  6. 6. France at War with Austria & Prussia <ul><li>By the summer of 1792 France was at war with Austria and Prussia and the Legislative Assembly had removed Louis XVI from the throne. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Second Revolution (1792) <ul><li>Members of the newly elected National Convention declared France a Republic in September 1792. </li></ul><ul><li>Revolutionaries tried to create a new revolutionary French culture. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Who were the Jacobins and what is their role in the Revolution? </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Jacobins <ul><li>Started as a debating club/society; they held their meetings in the library of a former Jacobin monastery in Paris. </li></ul><ul><li>Membership was primarily composed of middle class lawyers and merchants and they created a vast network of clubs. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Political Spectrum of France (1790) 1790s: Montagnards (“The Mountain”) Jacobins Girondists Monarchíen (Royalists) The Plain (swing votes)
  10. 10. The Execution of Louis XVI <ul><li>The Convention tried and executed Louis XVI on charges of treason. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Execution of Marie Antoinette
  12. 12. The Radical Phase of the Revolution <ul><li>The sans culottes , or working people of Paris, exercised a strong influence on the Convention. </li></ul><ul><li>Q: Who were the sans culottes and what is their role in the Revolution? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Contrasting Perspectives <ul><li>The two paintings represent the French and English versions of sans culottes women. Can you identify which version is French and which is English? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Total War and The Terror <ul><li>Military defeats prompted the revolutionary government, led by the Committee of Public Safety , to establish a primitive sort of centrally controlled economy, with fixed prices for bread, rationing, tight control of munitions industry, and other controls. </li></ul><ul><li>The Committee of Public Safety was created to speed up the work of the government during the crisis; the Committee was headed by Robespierre. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Revolutionary Tribunals in Paris <ul><li>Purpose was to try suspected counter-revolutionaries; led by the Committee of General Security. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for the pursuit of counter-revolutionaries, the treatment of suspects, and other internal security matters. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Terror aimed to crush all opponents of the Revolution . About 40,000 French were executed in the Terror and 300,000 suspects were arrested. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Maximilien Robespierre, a member of the “Mountain” led the Committee of Public Safety and were given essentially dictatorial powers to deal with the “national emergency.” </li></ul>
  17. 17. Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Georges Jacques Danton, also a member of the radical “Mountain” who was a friend of the working people of Paris and an amazingly gregarious orator. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Key Characters of the Terror <ul><li>Jean-Paul Marat, publisher of a popular Parisian newspaper who used his position to forward the agenda of the Committee of Public Safety. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Death of Marat <ul><li>Marat is stabbed and killed by Charlotte Corday </li></ul><ul><li>The painter, Jacques-Louis David helped to make Marat a martyr with this infamous painting. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The French Military & the Terror <ul><li>France mobilized a huge number (800,000) of motivated soldiers by instituting a draft and encouraging patriotic sentiment. </li></ul><ul><li>Outnumbering their opponents by perhaps 4 to 1, France won great battlefield victories . </li></ul><ul><li>These wars gave rise to a young general named Napoleon Bonaparte. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Thermidorian Reaction <ul><li>The Convention, fearing the expansion of the Terror, executed Maximilien Robespierre in July 1794. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Directory <ul><li>A new executive, the five-man Directory , ruled France from 1795  1799, essentially as dictators . </li></ul><ul><li>The end of economic controls hit the poor in Paris hard, and resulted in riots that were suppressed by force. </li></ul><ul><li>In rural France villagers, especially women, restored a normal, structured lifestyle, based in part on the Catholic Church. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Questions for your review <ul><li>What was Edmund Burke’s position on the French Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was Wollstonecraft and what is her contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who was de Gouges and what is her contribution to this history? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Jacobins and what is their role in the Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Declaration of Pillnitz? What is the effect on the Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the sans-culottes and what is their role in the Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Who were the Girondists? Who were the Mountain? What role do they play in the Revolution? </li></ul><ul><li>Which party did Robespierre and Danton belong to? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Committee of Public Safety? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the “September Massacres”? </li></ul><ul><li>Counter-revolutionaries and ‘The Terror’...what is the impact on this history? </li></ul><ul><li>How does ‘The Terror’ finally end? </li></ul><ul><li>Which ‘Coalitions’ try to defeat France from 1794-1798? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Thermidorian Reaction? </li></ul>
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