Ch21 Section 3   The French Revolution
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Ch21 Section 3 The French Revolution

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Ch21 Section 3   The French Revolution Ch21 Section 3 The French Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • THE REVOLUTION IN POLITICS, 1775-1815 AP European History – Eastview High School Ch21 Section 3 – The French Revolution, 1789-1791 (McKay, et al., 8 th ed.)
  • Essential Questions
    • To what extent is the French Revolution an attempt to create a government based on Enlightenment ideals?
    • What are the major long- and short-term causes of the French Revolution?
  • Anatomy of a Revolution
    • There is a theory about how and why revolutions take place, and much of it is based on the French Revolution.
    • Crane Brinton, Anatomy of Revolution : He uses the analogy of a fever to explain revolutions:
    • SYMPTOMS (Causes)
    • CRISIS (The Escalation)
    • DELIRIUM/HIGH POINT (Radical Phase)
    • RELAPSE/THERMIDOR (Reactionary Phase)
    •  
    • Revolutions occur when : pressure groups organize for reform, allegiance of the intellectuals switches, class antagonisms increase, governments are short of money, governments are inefficient and the governed are impatient.
  • Old Regime France
  • Causes of the French Revolution
    • A. Intellectual : Enlightenment ideas about liberty and equality influence the upper classes
    • B. Social : Society is still organized based on feudal concepts, no longer matching reality » resentments
  • Causes of the French Revolution
    • C. Political : Bourgeoisie (3rd estate) demands a say in the government; nobles want to retain or increase their power
    • D. Economic :
      • Government unable to pay national debt
      • 1780’s are a time of bad harvests, rising unemployment, rising prices, and poverty » restlessness of the masses
  • Economic Conditions
  • Causes of the French Revolution
    • E. Development of a public sphere of political debate
  • Causes of the French Revolution Marie Antoinette – Queen of France Louis XVI – King of France
  • Beginnings of the French Revolution
    • A. 1787 “Assembly of Notables” - Louis XVI wants to introduce new taxes, but the nobles refuse approval
    • B. The attempt to reduce/abolish the parlements’ power leads to a noble revolt -- The only way to raise new taxes is to get them approved by the Estates General
  • Beginnings of the French Revolution
    • C. The Estates General is summoned in 1789- delegates are chosen, and asked to list their grievances (cahiers)
      • 1. Both the nobility and the bourgeoisie want liberal changes: constitution, individual liberties, limited powers of the king, a representative body
  • Beginnings of the French Revolution
      • 2. But the problem is voting- the meeting is deadlocked for 6 weeks because the 3rd estate demands that voting go by individuals, not estate
  • Beginnings of the French Revolution
    • 3. Abbe Sieyes: What is the Third Estate? - the 3rd estate is the only politically significant group; nobles are obsolete
      • 1 st What is the Third Estate? Everything!
      • 2 nd What has it been heretofore in the political order? Nothing!
      • 3 rd What does it demand? To become something!
  • “The Third Estate Awakens!”
  • Key Events Leading to Revolution
    • D. Louis XVI closes the hall of the 3rd estate
    • E. June 17, 1789:
      • Third Estate declares themselves the National Assembly, and three days later, takes the Oath of the Tennis Court
    • F. Louis summons an army at Versailles (sides with the nobility)
  • Rising Tension & Mob Mentality
    • G. This incites the “angry mob” reaction
      • A crowd gathers outside the Invalides to obtain weapons
  • The Storming of the Bastille
    • Bastille Day - July 14, 1789-the Parisian mob storms the Bastille to get gun powder
      • 2. 98 attackers are killed, kill 6 of the guards, and the commander
      • symbolic attack on the king’s authority
  • The Storming of the Bastille Death of DeLaunay, governor of the Bastille
  • Site where the Bastille once stood
  • Rural Responses
    • H. “The Great Fear” - peasant rebellions in the country against feudal lords (summer 1789)
    • I. Louis forces the 1st and 2nd Estates to join the National Assembly- The Revolution has begun!!
  • The Great Fear
  • Questions to check your understanding
    • What characteristics of the American Revolution influenced the French Revolution?
    • In the 1780s, what percent of France’s budget was spent on interest payments on the debt?
    • How do you define classical liberalism? How is it manifested in the American and French revolutions?
    • Does 18 th century liberalism call for economic equality? Explain.
    • What did the grievance petitions from all three estates call for?
    • What is the Third Estate according to Abbe Sieyes?
    • Who were the primary representatives of the Third Estate?
    • What was the “Tennis Court Oath”?
    • Why was the National Assembly driven toward more “radical action” in the summer of 1789?
    • How did common Parisian women play key roles in the early years of the Revolution?
    • What was the “Great Fear”?
    • How did the National Assembly (1789-1791) broaden women’s rights?
    • What did the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen” specifically guarantee?
    • What were the specific accomplishments of the National Assembly?