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Ch20 Sections 3 & 4 Notes


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  • 1. The Changing Life of the People Eastview High School AP European History Chapter 20 – The Changing Life of the People Section 3 – Food & Medical Practice Section 4 – Religion & Popular Culture McKay, et al., 8 th edition
  • 2. Essential Questions
    • What did people eat, and how did changes in diet and medical care affect people’s lives?
    • What were the patterns of popular religion and culture? How did these patterns come into contact – and conflict – with the critical world-view of the educated public and thereby widen the cultural divide between rich and poor in the era of the Enlightenment?
  • 3. Food and Medical Practice
    • The life span of Europeans increased from twenty-five years to thirty-five years between 1700 and 1800, partly because diet improved and plagues disappeared.
  • 4. Food and Medical Practice
    • Diet and nutrition
      • The diet of ordinary people depended on grain.
        • Peasants and poor people ate mainly grains and vegetables .
      • Most people believed in the “just price,” whereby fair prices would be upheld by the government if needed.
        • This view eventually clashed with the view of a free-market economy; food riots were often the result.
      • Vegetables were important in the diet of the poor; milk and meat were rarely eaten .
      • Rich people ate quite differently from the poor.
        • Their diet was rich in meat and wine .
  • 5. Food and Medical Practice
    • The impact of diet on health
      • There were nutritional advantages and disadvantages to the diet of the poor.
        • Their breads were very nutritious; the basic bread-and-vegetables diet was adequate.
        • The key dietary problem was getting enough green vegetables and milk.
      • The rich often ate too much rich food .
  • 6. Food and Medical Practice
    • New foods, such as the potato, and new methods of farming brought on new patterns of food consumption.
      • The potato substantially improved the diet of the poor .
      • For some poor people, particularly in Ireland, the potato replaced grain as the primary food in the eighteenth century.
      • Elsewhere in Europe, the potato took hold more slowly, but became a staple by the end of the century.
  • 7. Food and Medical Practice
    • There was a growth in market gardening and an improvement in food variety in the eighteenth century.
    • Greater affluence caused many to turn to less nutritious food such as white bread and sugar .
      • However, rising incomes led to new tastes such as white bread and sugar—hence deterioration in nutritional levels.
  • 8. Food and Medical Practice
    • The medical practitioners
      • The Enlightenment led to research and experimentation in medicine and a rise in the number of practitioners.
      • The demonic view of disease was common, and faith healers were used to exorcise the demons .
      • Apothecaries (pharmacists) sold drugs that were often harmful to their patients; some drugs worked but too much reliance was placed on purging the bowels .
      • Surgeons often operated without anesthetics and in the midst of dirt.
      • Physicians frequently bled or purged people to death.
  • 9. Food and Medical Practice
    • Hospitals and medical experiments
      • Patients were crowded together, often several to a be d.
      • There was no fresh air or hygiene
  • 10. Religion & Popular Culture
    • The institutional church
      • Despite the critical spirit of the Enlightenment, the local parish church remained important in daily life, and the priest or pastor was the link between the people and the church hierarchy .
      • The Protestant belief in individualism of religion was tempered by increased state control over the church and religious life.
      • Catholic monarchs also increased state control over the church, making it less subject to papal influence .
        • Spain took control of ecclesiastical appointments and the Inquisition and, with France, pressured Rome to dissolve the Jesuits .
        • In Austria, Maria Theresa and Joseph II greatly reduced the size and influence of the monasteries and convents.
  • 11. Religion & Popular Culture
    • Catholic piety
      • In Catholic countries the old religious culture of ritual and superstition remained popular .
      • Catholic clergy reluctantly allowed traditional religion to survive.
    • Protestant revival
      • The complacency of earlier Protestantism ended with the advent of “Pietism,” which stressed religious enthusiasm, popular education, and individual religious development .
      • In England, Wesley was troubled by religious corruption, decline, and uncertainty .
        • His Methodist movement rejected the Calvinist idea of predestination and stressed salvation through faith .
        • Wesley’s ministry brought on a religious awakening, particularly among the lower classes .
  • 12. Religion & Popular Culture
    • Leisure and Religion
      • Carnival time saw a combination of religious celebration and popular recreation, often giving common people a chance to release their frustrations and aggressions .
      • Common culture was oral, and participation tended to be by way of the group, not the individual activity.
      • In the eighteenth century leisure tended to become more commercialized, including profit-oriented spectator sports.
        • Blood sports, such as bull-baiting, were popular.
      • The educated elites and the clergy led an attack on popular entertainment—hence a wedge was driven between common people and the educated public .
  • 13. Questions to assess your understanding
    • How would you characterize the diet of wealthy Europeans in the 18th century?
    • What did the diet of the poorer classes consist of in the 18th century?
    • What changes occurred in the food consumption habits of Europeans in the 18th century?
    • Who played a role in the care of the sick in the 18th century?
    • What was the greatest achievement of 18th century medical science?
    • What role did midwives serve?
    • Who was William Tuke?
    • Where did many surgeons gain anatomical knowledge and practical experience?
    • What was the basic religious unit for most Europeans in the 18th century?
    • Why did the Pope dissolve the Jesuit order for a time in 1773?
    • How can you explain the appeal of pietism in the 18th century?
    • Who was John Wesley?
    • What were characteristics of Carnival?
    • What American crop became an important dietary supplement by the end of the 18 th century?
    • How did faith-healers “heal” the sick?
    • Where did surgeons gain anatomical knowledge and experience?
    • Who was Edward Jenner?
    • Who was Madame du Coudray?