Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes
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Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes

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Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes Ch20 Sections 1 & 2 Notes Presentation Transcript

  • EASTVIEW HIGH SCHOOL AP EUROPEAN HISTORY CHAPTER 20 – THE CHANGING LIFE OF THE PEOPLE SECTION 1 – MARRIAGE AND THE FAMILY SECTION 2 – CHILDREN AND EDUCATION MCKAY, ET AL., 8 TH EDITION The Changing Life of the People
  • Essential Questions
    • What changes occurred in marriage and the family in the course of the eighteenth century?
    • What was life like for children, and how did attitudes toward children evolve?
  • Marriage and the Family
    • Extended and nuclear families
      • The nuclear family, not the extended family, was most common in preindustrial western and central Europe.
      • This conclusion is based on new studies of “parish registers.”
  • Marriage and the Family
    • Early marriage was not common prior to 1750, and many women (perhaps as much as half) never married at all.
      • In a typical English village, women and men married at twenty-seven.
    • Marriage was commonly delayed because of poverty and/or local law and tradition .
  • Marriage and the Family
    • Work away from home
      • Many boys left home to work as craftsmen or laborers .
      • Girls left to work as servants—where they often were physically and sexually mistreated .
  • Marriage and the Family
    • Premarital sex and community controls.
      • Illegitimate children were not common in preindustrial society ; premarital sex was common, but marriage usually followed.
      • The traditional (open-field) village system was a check upon both illegitimacy and early marriage .
      • Public action against domestic disputes and marital scandals was frequent—often taking the form of degrading public rituals .
      • Birth control methods were primitive and undependable.
  • Marriage and the Family
    • New patterns of marriage and illegitimacy
      • Between about 1750 and 1850 the number of illegitimate births soared —in some places from 2 to 25 percent of all births.
      • Fewer young women were abstaining from premarital intercourse and fewer young men were marrying the women they got pregnant .
      • One cause for this was that the growth of cottage industry (and later, the factory) resulted in people marrying earlier and for love.
      • Another cause was that more young villagers were moving to towns and cities where they were no longer subject to village controls.
      • Low wages, inequality, and changing economic and social conditions made it difficult for women to acquire a marriage based on romance .
  • Children and Education
    • Childhood was dangerous because of adult indifference, neglect, and even abuse.
    • Child care and nursing
      • Infant mortality was very high.
      • Breast-feeding of children was common among poor women.
      • Breast-fed infants were more likely to survive than the infant who was fed artificial foods.
      • Middle- and upper-class women hired wet nurses.
      • The occupation of wet-nursing was often exploitative of lower-class women
  • Children and Education
    • Foundlings and infanticide
      • “Killing nurses” and infanticide were forms of population control.
      • Foundling hospitals were est. but could not care for all the abandoned babies .
      • Some had as many as 25,000 children.
      • In reality, many were simply a form of legalized infanticide .
  • Children and Education
    • Attitudes toward children
      • Attitudes toward children were different from those of today, partly because of the frequency of death .
      • Parents and doctors were generally indifferent to children .
      • Children were often neglected or treated brutally.
    • The Enlightenment brought about more humane treatment of children.
      • Critics like Rousseau called for more love and understanding of children .
      • The practice of swaddling was discouraged.
  • Children and Education
    • Schools and popular literature
    • Formal education outside the home became more important for the upper classes in the sixteenth century.
      • But education for common people did not begin until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries .
    • Both Catholic and Protestant reformers encouraged popular education.
    • Protestant Prussia led the way in universal education .
    • Education was important in Presbyterian Scotland and elsewhere.
  • Children and Education
    • Literacy increased, especially in France and Scotland, between 1700 and 1800.
      • The Bible was still the favorite book, but new pamphlets called chapbooks became popular.
      • Another form was popular literature, such as fairy tales, romances, and fictionalized history.
      • Some popular literature dealt with practical arts; most new literature did not challenge the political and social system.
  • Questions to assess your understanding
    • At what age did most people marry in the 1700 & 1800s?
    • Why was the marriage pattern later (ages) during this time?
    • What did young boys typically do for a job?
    • What did young women do for a job?
    • Prior to 1750 how would you characterize frequency of premarital sex?
    • What were a baby’s chances of survival at a foundling home?
    • Who was Vincent de Paul?
    • What was Daniel Defoe’s perspective on child-rearing?
    • Which European country was the first to mandate compulsory education?
    • What was an underlying cause of the illegitimacy explosion?
    • To what can you contribute neglectful attitudes toward children in preindustrial Europe?
    • What types of texts/books were popular among European peasants ?
    • How did common people treat those who violated social norms in a village?
    • What type of almanacs were popular with European peasants?
    • What dangers threatened young girls who worked as domestic servants?