Ch19 3 & 4 Notes
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Ch19 3 & 4 Notes Ch19 3 & 4 Notes Presentation Transcript

  • The Growth of the Cottage Industry & Building the Atlantic Economy Eastview High School AP European History Chapter 19 – The Expansion of Europe in the 18 th Century Section 3 – The Growth of the Cottage Industry Section 4 – Building the Atlantic Economy McKay, et al., 8 th edition
  • Essential Questions
    • Why were the fundamental economic factors of European society beginning to change, and what were the dimensions of these changes?
    • How did these changes affect people and their work?
    • How did these changes foreshadow the upcoming Industrial Revolution and which countries take the lead?
  • The Putting-Out System
  • Shortcomings of the Putting-Out System
    • The production in the countryside is unregulated (no guild standards) which leads to inconsistent quality.
    • Inability to enforce quotas.
    • Disputes with workers over weights of materials delivered.
    • Difficulty making workers produce steadily.
  • Characteristics of the Putting-Out System
    • Peasant communities had always made some clothing, processed some food, and constructed some housing for their own use.
    • By the eighteenth century the pressures of rural poverty required peasants to search for ways to supplement their way of life.
    • The putting-out system (rural industry) is utilized to supplement income and is an opportunity for merchant capitalists.
    • The putting-out system employs rural families.
  • Building the Atlantic Economy
    • Mercantilism and Colonial Wars
    • English mercantilism was characterized by government regulations that served the interests both of the state and of private individuals.
    • Mercantilism in other European countries generally served only state interests.
  • Mercantilism and Colonial Wars
    • The Navigation Acts of 1651  1663 were a form of economic warfare against Dutch domination of Atlantic shipping. They gave British merchants and ship owners a near monopoly on trade with Britain’s North American colonies.
    • After defeating the Dutch, England fought a series of wars with France for maritime domination of the world.
      • War of the Spanish Succession (1701  1713)
      • War of the Austrian Succession (1740  1748)
      • The Seven Years’ War (1756  1763) ended with British winning full control over India and North America.
      • American colonists referred to this as the French and Indian War
  • Land & Labor in British America
    • In Britain’s North American colonies cheap land and scarce labor resulted in the following:
      • rapid increase in the colonial population in the eighteenth century.
      • import of African slaves to tobacco plantations in southern colonies.
      • growing prosperity for British colonists.
  • The Atlantic Economy (18 th century)
    • Britain and especially England profited from the mercantile system .
    • As trade with Europe stagnated, colonial markets took up the slack .
    • English exports grew more balanced and diverse .
  • The Atlantic Slave Trade
    • The forced migration of millions of Africans was a key element in the Atlantic system and western European economic expansion.
    • After 1700, Britain was the undisputed leader of the slave tra de.
    • Increasing demand led to rising prices for African slaves.
    • Africans participated in the trade .
    • After 1775, a campaign to abolish slavery developed in Britain .
  • Revival in Colonial Latin America
    • Under Philip V (r. 1700  1746) Spain recovered economically and successfully defended her American colonies .
    • Rising silver exports in the eighteenth century helped create a class of wealthy Creole (Spanish blood born in America) merchants.
    • Creole estate owners dominated much of the peasant population through debt peonage, really a form of serfdom .
  • Adam Smith and Economic Liberalism
    • Smith challenged mercantilist ideas with his defense of free trade and his argument for keeping government interference in the economy to a minimum ( The Wealth of Nations [1776]).
    • Smith was one of the Enlightenment’s most original thinkers .
    • His work became the basis of the classic argument for economic liberalism and unregulated capitalism.
    • Smith argued that government has “only three duties ”
      • Defense of the country
      • Civil order within the country
      • Sponsor indispensable public works and institutions
  • Questions to check your understanding
    • What were the factors surrounding the English Navigation Acts? How did they help British merchants?
    • How does the French government try to improve living standards for the rural poor?
    • What are the shortcomings of the putting-out system?
    • Who worked the plantations in Virginia?
    • Who was employed by the putting-out system?
    • Who led the Spanish revitalization in Spain in the eighteenth century?
    • Who were the Mestizos? Who were the Creole?
    • What was the decisive round in the colonial conflict between England and France?
    • Why do the British win the American component of the Seven Years’ War – what decision helped turn the tables?
    • How does Spain recover after 1700?
    • Who was Adam Smith? What is his most famous work and what argument does he make in this written work?
    • By the 1770s, who experiences the largest trade increase with the British?