Spanish Grammar Book <ul><li>Valentina Krysiak P.1 </li></ul>
Table of Contents tabla de contenidos tabla de contenidos <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Present (ar, er, ir) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changers </li></ul><ul><li>irregular “yo” </li></ul><ul><li>Saber Vs. conocer </li></ul><ul><li>reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>“ se” impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>dipthongs with accents </li></ul><ul><li>verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir </li></ul><ul><li>hace+___+que+___ </li></ul><ul><li>imperfecto </li></ul>
Present (-ar, -er, -ir) -ar -er -ir yo- o nosotros - amos tú- as vosotros- aís el, ella, usted- a ellos, ellas, ustedes- an o emos es éis e en o imos es ís e en
stem-changers Some spanish verbs are called stem-changers because when they are conjugated, the stem changes. e -> Ie empezar the stem-changer only changes to -ie in the ‘boot’. o -> ue almorzar take the last letters off and whatever the accent falls on on the root word, change it to the according letter. e -> i conseguir empiezo empezamos empiezas empiezan empieza empiezan amuerzo almorzamos amuerzas almuerzan almuerza almuerzan consigo conseguimos consigas consigan consige consigan
irregular “yo” it is a stem-changer in the “yo” form word, with the adding of a “g”. poner -> pon g o traer -> tra i g o valer -> val g o salir -> sal g o Hacer -> ha g o
saber vs. conocer The verb you choose depends upon the context in which it is used. These verbs are not interchangeable. To express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something use saber To say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object use conocer EXAMPLE: Juan sabe donde está María. Juan knows where Maria is. EXAMPLE: Yo no conozco a María. I don't know (am not acquainted with) Maria.
reflexives A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same I wash myself. subject: I verb: wash object: myself When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in "se." lavar to wash (non-reflexive) lavarse to wash oneself (reflexive) To conjugate reflexive verbs, you need "reflexive pronouns." Reflexive pronouns are put before the verb, while the ending "se" is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.
“ se” impersonal Verbs are always 3rd person singular and are commonly followed by a direct object. se + 3rd person singular Se habla español aquí. No se permite fotos aquí.
diphthongs with accents Diphthongs happen when an unstressed "i", "u", or "y-endings" appear next to other vowels in the same syllable. Their vowel sounds do not change. They blend together to form a single syllable. When there is a written accent over the letter "i", the diphthong is "broken" and the two vowels are pronounced separately. Example: b ai le m ue rto s ei s
imperfecto the imperfect is used for past actions that are not seen as completed- use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following: To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following: aba ábamos abas abais aba aban ía íamos ías íais ía ían