Spanish grammar book


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Spanish grammar book

  1. 1. Spanish Grammar Book <ul><li>Valentina Krysiak P.1 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Table of Contents tabla de contenidos tabla de contenidos <ul><li>Title Page </li></ul><ul><li>Table of contents </li></ul><ul><li>Present (ar, er, ir) </li></ul><ul><li>Stem changers </li></ul><ul><li>irregular “yo” </li></ul><ul><li>Saber Vs. conocer </li></ul><ul><li>reflexives </li></ul><ul><li>“se” impersonal </li></ul><ul><li>dipthongs with accents </li></ul><ul><li>verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir </li></ul><ul><li>hace+___+que+___ </li></ul><ul><li>imperfecto </li></ul>
  3. 3. Present (-ar, -er, -ir) -ar -er -ir yo- o nosotros - amos tú- as vosotros- aís el, ella, usted- a ellos, ellas, ustedes- an o emos es éis e en o imos es ís e en
  4. 4. stem-changers Some spanish verbs are called stem-changers because when they are conjugated, the stem changes. e -> Ie empezar the stem-changer only changes to -ie in the ‘boot’. o -> ue almorzar take the last letters off and whatever the accent falls on on the root word, change it to the according letter. e -> i conseguir empiezo empezamos empiezas empiezan empieza empiezan amuerzo almorzamos amuerzas almuerzan almuerza almuerzan consigo conseguimos consigas consigan consige consigan
  5. 5. irregular “yo” it is a stem-changer in the “yo” form word, with the adding of a “g”. poner -> pon g o traer -> tra i g o valer -> val g o salir -> sal g o Hacer -> ha g o
  6. 6. saber vs. conocer The verb you choose depends upon the context in which it is used. These verbs are not interchangeable. To express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something use saber To say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object use conocer EXAMPLE: Juan sabe donde está María. Juan knows where Maria is. EXAMPLE: Yo no conozco a María. I don't know (am not acquainted with) Maria.
  7. 7. reflexives A verb is reflexive when the subject and the object are the same I wash myself. subject: I verb: wash object: myself When a verb is reflexive, the infinitive ends in &quot;se.&quot; lavar to wash (non-reflexive) lavarse to wash oneself (reflexive) To conjugate reflexive verbs, you need &quot;reflexive pronouns.&quot; Reflexive pronouns are put before the verb, while the ending &quot;se&quot; is dropped and the verb is conjugated normally.
  8. 8. “se” impersonal Verbs are always 3rd person singular and are commonly followed by a direct object. se + 3rd person singular Se habla español aquí. No se permite fotos aquí.
  9. 9. diphthongs with accents Diphthongs happen when an unstressed &quot;i&quot;, &quot;u&quot;, or &quot;y-endings&quot; appear next to other vowels in the same syllable. Their vowel sounds do not change. They blend together to form a single syllable. When there is a written accent over the letter &quot;i&quot;, the diphthong is &quot;broken&quot; and the two vowels are pronounced separately. Example: b ai le m ue rto s ei s
  10. 10. “ -ger/-gir” , “-uir/-guir” , “-cer/-cir” verbs
  11. 11. hace+____+que+_____
  12. 12. imperfecto the imperfect is used for past actions that are not seen as completed- use of the imperfect tense implies that the past action did not have a definite beginning or a definite end To conjugate regular -ar verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-ar) and add one of the following: To conjugate regular -er and -ir verbs in the imperfect, simply drop the ending (-er or -ir) and add one of the following: aba ábamos abas abais aba aban ía íamos ías íais ía ían