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Gibson Text Overview

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Transcript

  • 1. A Quest for Learning in Social Studies A review of the Textbook for EDEL 335 Or “What does Dr. Sue say?
  • 2. Introduction: Setting Goals
  • 3. Reflective Practice
    • Personal perceptions act as filters
    • Beliefs needs to be examined
    • Beliefs determine actions: instruction, materials, assessment, and more
  • 4. Constructivism
    • How people learn
    • Learning is an active process of constructing knowledge
    • The individual nature of learners is valued
    • Active engagement is paramount
    • Meaning is enhanced through interaction
    • Facilitation - supports for learning
  • 5. Basic Beliefs About Learning
    • Process of building and revising previous knowledge
    • Relevance - context important
    • Collaborative - engagement with others
    • Thoughtful reflection
  • 6. Problem 1: Why is Social Studies Taught in School?
  • 7. Citizenship
    • Fundamental to democracy
    • Informed
    • Knowledgeable
    • Active
    • SS has been “assigned” the responsibility for this
  • 8. Cultural Conservation Orientation
    • Passing on societal core values
    • “ Truths” to pass on
    • Referred to as “passive” citizenship
    • Tends to be dominated by teacher-centred curriculum
  • 9. Disciplines Orientation
    • Need to understand concepts and processes contained in the disciplines
    • Each discipline has its own structure and method of inquiry
    • Procedures are standardized and organized
    • Viewed as “rigorous”
  • 10. Inquiry Orientation
    • Citizenship must be able to identify and solve complex, diverse problems
    • Emphasis is on the search for knowledge
    • Demands active involvement of students
    • Outcome of investigations not known ahead of time.
  • 11. Cultural Transformation Orientation
    • Basis is a broad social concern for social justice
    • Development of skills necessary to change and improve existing social practices
    • Active involvement and student opinions are crucial
    • Reflection on moral issues
  • 12. Personal Development Orientation
    • Development of the self is crucial to good citizenship.
    • Positive self-concept
    • Personal efficacy
    • Search for own personal meaning
    • Character-values-morals
  • 13. Respect for Diversity Orientation
    • All people/groups have value
    • The good citizen appreciates the values of different groups
    • “Emotional Generosity”
    • Combating prejudice/stereotyping
    • Interdependence of people across cultures
  • 14. Global Orientation
    • Worldwide interdependence of people
    • “ National Citizenship” is too narrow
    • Awareness of pluralism, and skills to cope with rapid change
    • Sharing of finite resources
    • Examination of broad issues (e.g. environmental problems)
  • 15. The Hidden Curriculum
    • Norms and values that are implicitly taught
    • Unexamined beliefs can result in a hidden curriculum where practices do not match beliefs.
  • 16. Problem Two: How to Select and Organize the Content for Teaching in Social Studies
  • 17. Your Goals, Interests, Experiences
    • The Program of Studies specifies what must be taught
    • There is much room for elaboration, and other topics related to general outcomes
    • There is a lot of freedom within the Program of Studies
  • 18. Children’s Needs, Interests, Past Experiences
    • Brain-based learning. Early. Experiential. Integrative. Challenging
    • Developmental Levels. Maturation. Social Experience
    • Multiple Intelligences. 8 evolving intelligences. Differences are to be taken seriously.
  • 19. Curricular Requirements
    • Provincial Documents
    • Supporting Documents
    • Approved Learning Materuals
  • 20. Learning Outcomes
    • Knowledge
    • Skills
    • Attitudes
  • 21. A Sidebar About History
    • Most controversial
    • Widespread belief that history is not taught, or taught well
    • Cultural Conservation - has tended to present one viewpoint
    • Now- multiple perspectives
    • Build on Social History
    • “ Stories” of different groups.
  • 22. The School Community and Beyond
    • The context does matter
    • Schools and communities are different
    • Teachers need to be sensitive to local conditions - especially when dealing with controversial issues.
  • 23. Available Resources
    • Amount and kinds of resources differ
    • Texts are first choices, but not enough
    • Multiple Truths approach will use a wide variety of resources - many unique to local communities.
  • 24. Organizing for Instruction
    • Program of Studies is the legal document
    • Text can provide an organizing structure
    • Expanding Horizons - based on developmental levels
    • Disciplines
    • Concerns based
    • Thematic/Integrated
  • 25. Problem 3: How Should You Go About Locating and Selecting Resources for Social Studies?
  • 26. More Personal Reflection
    • Single authority
    • Multiple authorities
    • Student needs, interests, abilities, attitudes (Note Dale’s “Cone”, Learning Styles)
  • 27. The Textbook
    • Depth of coverage of topics
    • Bias?
    • Stereotypes?
    • How is material presented?
    • Does it engage students?
    • Be cautious even with “approved” resources.
  • 28. Children’s Literature
    • Engagement
    • Personalization
    • Helpful in development of attitudes, development of social values
    • Stereotypes and bias must be watched
    • LA and SS outcomes can be achieved in an integrated fashion.
  • 29. News Media
    • Current Events is important
    • Citizens need to be aware of what is going on around them
    • Development of critical and creative thinking
    • Media literacy skills must be taught
    • Methods for using media must be varied
  • 30. Technology (esp. Computers)
    • Must be integrated - viewed as another tool
    • Great research tool
    • Appeals to different learning styles
    • Gets students introduced to a technological world
  • 31. Computer Software
    • Word Processing
    • Presentation Software (Hyperstudio, Powerpoint)
    • Databases
    • Spreadsheets
    • Specialized applications (e.g., Cross Country Canada)
  • 32. The Web
    • Critical viewing skills must be taught
    • Use of an appropriate Search Engine is important
    • Virtual Field Trips growing
    • Much of the utility is still dependent on appropriate hardware, and sufficient bandwidth
  • 33. The Community
    • Local museums
    • Guest Speakers
    • Local businesses
    • Use of local resources help connect students to the community and help them to see relevance of concepts
  • 34. Problem 4:What Approaches to Teaching Social Studies Should You Use?
  • 35. General Approaches to Teaching
    • Teacher-Directed
    • Shared-Direction
    • Student-Directed
  • 36. Children’s Learning Needs
    • Elaboration on previous information on
    • Brain Research
    • Constructivism
    • Multiple Intelligences
  • 37. Inquiry
    • “Backbone” of Social Studies
    • Teacher-directed inquiry. Teacher determines question, procedures, resources, and overall structure
    • Open-Ended inquiry. Students and teachers share control, and structures can vary widely
  • 38. More about Open-Ended
    • K/W/L charts
    • Determine questions
    • Categorize questions
    • Gathering information
    • Determining “quality” of information
    • Organizing and presenting information
    • Sharing information
  • 39. Critical Thinking
    • Easier to do with open-ended inquiry
    • Best when studying content “in depth”
    • Questioning levels (Bloom)
  • 40. Cooperative Learning
    • Development of important group process skills
    • Building of a classroom community
    • Cooperative Learning involves structure and planning for group roles (e.g., Jigsaw, Webquests)
  • 41. Participation Through the Arts
    • Relevance to learning
    • Integration of learning outcomes
    • Dramatic play, role play, simulations, tableau
  • 42. Problem 5: How Should Children’s Learning Be Assessed in Social Studies?
  • 43. Terms
    • Assessment: Gathering of Information about the learner in order to make decisions.
    • Evaluation: Making a judgment about the learning
    • Reports: Sharing the assessment information and evaluative judgment
  • 44. Major Categories of Assessment
    • Right-Answer. Teacher-designed tests. Identifiable body of knowledge. Ranking.
    • Open-ended. How students use knowledge, Student participation. Identification of growth. Authentic tasks
  • 45. Assessment Tools
    • Diagnostic. Planning. Determination of instructtion and student needs
    • Formative. On-going and daily.
    • Summative. Have goals and objectives been met?
  • 46. Right-Answer Tests
    • Structured
    • Use for classification
    • Are limited in what they can effectively test
    • Can tend to “narrow” the curriculum
    • Can lead to teaching of test-taking strategies.
  • 47. Open-ended Testing
    • Can allow for higher-order thinking questions.
    • Can involve students in development
    • Can test a wider variety of outcomes (skills, attitudes)
  • 48. Demonstrations of Learning
    • “Performance outcomes”
    • Models
    • Simulations
    • Debates
    • Murals
    • And many more…..
  • 49. Learning Portfolio
    • Purposeful (emphasis on purposeful) collection of student work
    • Can represent learning over a period of time
    • Can demonstrate growth
    • Actively involve students in planning, developing and presenting
  • 50. Self-Evaluations
    • Independence
    • Ownership (personal responsibility)
    • Engagement
    • Metacognition
  • 51. Anecdotal Records
    • Provide “rich” data
    • Focus on individuals
    • Organization is key - use forms, checklists to simplify the process
  • 52. Program Evaluation
    • The Reflective Teacher
    • Success (or lack of success) of different strategies and activities
    • Pacing
    • Involvement
    • Were learning needs met?

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