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# Roller Coaster SGP

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• Gravity- after the first hill there is nothing propelling the train besides gravity. It forces the train around the track and also keeps the train on the track. -Gravity also has a big effect on the safety of the ride, when the train moves up a hill the speed will decrease because of the force of gravity is pushing the train back down at 9.8 m/s2Potential Energy- as the track increases in height the more potential energy the train gathers. As the train falls off the top of the hill the force transfers into velocity and then into kinetic energy.Velocity- occurs as the train is falling from the top of the highest part of the track. This also causes the train to gain kinetic energy.Kinetic Energy- it is the greatest at the bottom of the biggest (first) hill of the track. THE FASTER THE TRAIN MOVES THE MORE KINETIC ENERGY IS POSSESED.
• Velocity- occurs as the train is falling from the top of the highest part of the track. This also causes the train to gain kinetic energy. Velocity is gained because of the gravity that forces the train down from the top of the hill.Kinetic Energy- it is the greatest at the bottom of the biggest (first) hill of the track. THE FASTER THE TRAIN MOVES THE MORE KINETIC ENERGY IS POSSESED.
• Friction- It works the opposite way that the roller coaster is traveling. This is also something the designers use for safety purposes with the wheels of the trains. Which I will get into later.Cent. Accel.- it is the force that is known as G-forces. Its what your body feels when you go through a turn, twist, and loop. It will make our body feel a lot heavier than it really is. It is sometimes known as the Centripetal Force but it’s not really a force, it is your bodies inertia adjusting to the train’s change of direction.
• You feel 1 G everyday. The usual G of earth’s gravitational pull.Positive- not really a force. It’s the way the body reacts to quick change in motion makes your body feel heavier. The faster the change in direction the heavier you feelNegative- the faster the change of direction away from the body the lighter you feel. You will float over your seat when this happens.
• This graph shows how the acceleration force, weight, and gravity all change within a loop. It shows how in the beginning of the loop all the forces are pulling the train down to the track. When the train gets half way up the track you can see that gravity never changes, and how the weight of the train is always forcing the car down into the track. Also the acceleration force is just slightly in front of the train that’s because the train starts to move up and the acceleration changes with it. As the train reaches the top of the loop, once again gravity was forcing the car down but the weight and the acceleration force are both greater than the gravity force so the train wont come off the track. The reason the acceleration force is still facing up is because if the way the loop is formed, if it was just a little steeper either way the train wouldn’t have enough speed to complete the loop. So as the train reaches the top of the loop the acceleration is still moving upward which causes your body to feel the G-forces.
• During the ride you will experience both positive G’s. positive G’s have the most affect on the body, every G that is forced onto the body your weight doubles. The body can not handle over 8 G’s. the only way your body can handle these high G’s is If you train for those kinds of G’s (astronauts, stunt pilots, fighter pilots) the consequences for going over these G’s is black outs, nose bleeds, and possibly death if out too long. That’s what differs from passing out and black outs because black outs are like a tiny brain damage that can cause internal bleeding depending on how high the G’s are.
• Negative G’s aren’t nearly as bad as positive G’s. the worst thing that can happen to you is you can get sick. The only reason you would get sick is because of the weightless feeling, also known as stomach turning. All of these G’s would be found at the top of bunny hops and the fall from the steepest drop. At these points will actually float above your seat.
• Sit down roller coasters are the most popular. They are the basic roller coasters made for speed. They don’t have the capability of doing inversions that other roller coasters do such as suspended roller coasters. The reason they don’t have the capability is because the way the train is laid out. The rain doesn’t have as many flexible joints between each train.-Suspension- this roller coaster is more of a trick roller coaster. Made for thrills, not for speed. There are many inversions throughout the ride such as loops, cork-screws, and high G turns.
• -Stand up- stands up on a platform that sits on the track. Made for thrills but not as much as suspended roller coasters are. You cant do too many high G loops and/or turns because of some peoples strength. The riders have to hold there own body weight during this ride because there is no support for their body weight. -flying- the style flying is when people board the train in an upright position and then right before the ride start the seats will slide back so your facing the ground. Therefore the superman style. These roller coasters are made mostly for thrills, many of inversions but no high G turns because of the way your body is positioned. If there was a high G turn the forces would be too strong for your stomach that your stomach could burst. There are some high G loops but they are too fast for anything to happen to your body.
• The first ever roller coaster was built in Russia in the 1600’s. if you saw this roller coaster today you would think that they were just sledding. I say this because the first roller coaster was made from a steep ice hill curved into a track. The riders would slide on a sled made out of ice or wood. They would be slowed down by sand or a snow mound at the end of the track.-America- they set up amusement parks at the end of their lines so they would increase their business. The ride was a mine train that people would climb into and the workers would push them down the first hill and they would travel over a couple bumps and would stop. The workers would then push the car up a second hill and do the same for one more hill.
• 1884 the first gravity roller coaster that had a start and a finish kind of. This roller coaster was actually 2 rides in one. There was the beginning where they would travel across to the other side where they would get off and travel on a separate track (ride) back to the beginning. -600 feet long track, speeds up to only 6 mph’s.In 1898 the first looped roller coaster called the flip-flap railway. The forces were too strong that riders necks would actually snap. The reason for this is because of the way the loop was shaped. It was more of a circle than an oval. (clothoid loop)
• The roller coasters was put on hold for a while because of the great depression, a lot of theme parks went out of business and the coasters were destroyed until Disneyland-1950 the first steel roller coaster was built. They were built for more agility and more speed. They started to create loops that actually worked.
• In 1975 the first looped roller coaster was built. It started a big trend throughout the world, almost every theme park had a looped or cork-screwed roller coaster within it came back.-2002 the fastest roller coaster called “top thrill dragster” was built. it is also the first roller coaster to be propelled by magnetism. It was also the tallest roller coaster at its time. It had to go it reached heights of 420 ft into the air at a 90 degree angle. It has to be at such a great angle to slow the roller coaster down just enough to keep the train on the tracks. There has been roller coasters built like this all around the world. Now there is a roller coaster that tops the speed and the height of this. King Da Ka reaches speeds up to 128 mph and heights of 456 ft. (45 stories)
• Steele tracks- they are able to have more wheels on the track for more protection and a smoother ride.More speed- the more speed the greater thrill for the riders. Because of the smoother ride the track can do more things such as loops, sharp turns, cork screws.Inversions- these inversions help a lot with the thrill of the ride because it moves the body more and puts more activity in the ride. With sharp turns the body feels the G-forces and gives your body an adrenalin rush.
• Wooden track- the bumpy rides has a big effect on the safety issues within the ride. There is a bigger chance of injuries while on this ride because of your head bouncing around and your body sliding within the car.Less speeds- because of the bumpy rides causes more friction between the track and the train’s wheels. Also because of all of the hills within the ride, that is the only way to keep the train at a reasonable speed. If the train travels too fast it wouldn’t be able to stay on track.-many G’s- because of few inversions or no inversions they have to make the ride kind of thrilling so they put in short little hills that the train will hit at high speeds which cause negative G’s.
• BATWING- an inversion that is comprised of a mini-dive loop running straight into a mini-immelmann loop. Also known as a boomerang. As you enter into batwing you should feel some positive G’s. After feeling those G’s potential energy builds and transfers into kinetic at the bottom of the loop. Hen while exiting the batwing you will experience more positive G’s.BOWTIE- the Bowtie is very similar to the batwing as it is similar to the boomerang. The only difference that this inversion has is that it exits in the same direction it enters. As the train enters the inversion you will feel some positive G’s and then the train will build up some velocity before hitting another loop causing you to feel more positive G’s.
• BUTTERFLY- is very odd compared to the other inversions. It is almost like a corkscrew because it has multiple loops within one inversion. There is a immelmann loop followed by a dive loop and then exits the same direction it enters. The only force you feel while moving through the butterfly is the positive G twice through the inversion. They occur during the beginning of the loops.COBRA ROLL- this inversions gets its name from its shape. They say it’s the shape of a Cobra’s mouth. It is very similar to the Butterfly but the dive loop is shorter. This is most commonly known as a Medusa. There are a lot of G’s felt throughout this inversion because you are inverted for a short time. You feel positive G’s when you enter the inversion and exit it. you feel the negative G’s when the train is inverted.
• Dive loop- It is a reversed Immelmann loop. It is a loop with a twist in the middle of it. as the train moves through this inversion there are positive G’s within it and also potential and kinetic energy. The positive energy occurs at the top of the loop and forces the train back down the other side of the loop. The kinetic energy occurs at the end of the inversion where the potential energy runs out and forces the train to the other inversions where other forces will take over.Fly-to-Lie- this is only really on suspension roller coasters because it is safer. It is basically what it is called. It starts off in a regular position (fly) and it has a twist that turns the train into a upside down position (lie). There is really only negative G’s within this inversion. It occurs when the track twists.
• Flying Snake Dive- This inversion is actually only found on one roller coaster, Storm Runner at Hershey Park. The inversion consist of a barrel roll followed by a twisting dive going off to the left. Going through this inversion you will feel negative G’s and positive G’s also there will be some potential energy as well. The negative G’s will be felt as you are going through the barrel roll and the the negative G’s will be felt when you come out of the barrel roll and you start to move down the hill because the train is facing inward. The potential energy will be at its max when the train is at the top of its fall. There is no Kinetic energy to this inversion because there is no real bottom of the hill.Immelmann Loop- this loop is the same thing as a vertical loop just backwards or reversed. In a vertical loop the train is on the inside of the track and on an Immelmann the train is on the outside of the track. Also the loop doesn’t come all the way closed, it exits with a spinning dive off to the left. Throughout this inversion your body only feels negative G’s. you feel them throughout the inversion, when the train is in the middle of the loop, and when the train is moving through the twisting dive.
• Inclined Loop- A vertical loop tilted at a 45 degree angle only found on suspension roller coasters or stand up roller coasters. In this inversion you get get the same forces you would get on a regular loop. You get positive G’s, kinetic, potential energy, and velocity. When you first get to the loop your start to feel the positive G’s and the kinetic energy is very high. At the top of the loop you still feel positive G’s because of the velocity of the train and there the potential and the kinetic energy are almost at the same level.Inline Twist- this inversion actually doesn’t change in height and it rotates the train around a central point, usually the riders hearts. This gives the feeling that they re falling out of there seats when moving through the inversion. Throughout the inversion your body feels negative G’s only. Through the twist he cart is trying to fall of the track and that’s what your body is feeling.
• Inverted Top Hat- a inversion that you go into vertically and in the middle of it the train is flipped upside down and then when the train exits it is then flipped back to vertical. The forces within this inversion are velocity, potential and kinetic energy. The velocity makes sure that the train makes it up and around the inversion. The potential energy is greatest at the top of the inversion where the train is inverted. The kinetic energy is found right before the train enters the inversion and at the end of it.Lie-to-Fly- This inversion is the same exact thing as the fly to lie inversion it is just opposite it starts out in the laying position and then flips into the flying position. There is only negative G’s throughout this inversion. You will feel those G’s when the train is flipped.
• Norwegian Loop- this inversion is an upside down loop I would call it. it enters very vast and exits slow because it has to climb to get out of the inversion. Within this inversion there are positive G’s, velocity, and potential and kinetic energy. The positive G’s are felt at the bottom of the loop where the train begins its climb. Velocity is a big part in this inversion because if there wasn’t enough velocity the train wouldn’t be able to make it through the inversion. The potential energy is greatest at the beginning of the inversion and at the end. The kinetic energy the greatest in the middle so it can force the train back up the other side of the loop.Pretzel loop- one of the the more intense inversion for a roller coaster mostly performed for flying roller coasters. It consists of a weirdly shaped loop that’s it. there are a lot of forces throughout this inversion such as positive G’s. they will be felt at the bottom of the loop.
• Raven Turn- this is a very interesting inversion because the way that it is set up the train can either go down the raven turn or move up it. all this inversion is, is a half loop. There are positive G’s and potential energy within this inversion. The positive G’s can be felt when the train is flowing down he inversion and then the potential energy is at its greatest at the top of the inversion.Roll Over- this is the most basic inversion in a suspended roller coaster. It consists of a half loop and that turns into an inline twist and then turns back into another half loop. There are a lot of forces within this inversion such as potential and kinetic energy, velocity, and positive G’s. as the train enters the inversion you start to feel the G’s also at that point the kinetic energy is at its greatest. When the train gets to the top of the track the potential energy is at its greatest. When the train hits the inline twist you start to feel more positive energy and then it goes down the other side of the half loop and the kinetic energy takes over again.
• Sea Serpent- this inversion is very similar to the cobra roll and the corkscrew. The only difference between the two is that in the sea serpent the direction of the train is changed in the middle of the inversion causing the train to exit the same direction the train is entered. In this inversion you will feel all the forces that a roller coaster can have. They are all over this inversion.Twisting Dive- This is a rare inversion. It is a half a loop followed by a twist in the downward position. As the coaster flows up the half loop the kinetic energy transfers into potential energy and then it flows into the twist when your body starts to feel negative G’s.
• Vertical loop- This is a regular loop found on almost every roller coaster. The forces within this inversion are potential energy, kinetic energy, and positive G’s. as you first enter the loop you feel the positive G’s and that is when the kinetic energy is at its greatest. At the top of the loop you start to feel some negative G’s because gravity is trying to force you to the ground. Also that is where the potential energy is at its greatest.Zer0-G Roll- this is exactly like a regular hill (bunny hop) just when the zero G’s come in the track twists. There is only negative G’s and potential and kinetic energy within this inversion. The zero G’s is obviously at the top of the hill when the track twists and that’s also where the potential energy is at its greatest. The kinetic energy is at its greatest at the beginning and the end of the inversion.
• Corkscrew- as the train travels into the corkscrew you start to create positive G’s that forces the train up into the track. If the train doesn’t have enough velocity the train wouldn’t be able to fully make it through the inversion. If it weren’t for the special wheels that keep the train from flying off the tracks, it would fall. As the train moves down the loop the train begins to accelerate gaining speed for the next loop that is coming up right after the next. Just because there is positive G’s doesn’t mean there is negative G’s. there is nothing in a corkscrew that would make you experience negative G’s.
• Bunny Hops- Usually towards the end of the ride and hit with a high speed to get the greater negative G’s. Mostly found in wooden roller coaster but also in steel roller coaster but not as common.+/- G’s- as the train moves to the top of the bunny hop the body will feel ten times lighter than the original body weight. This occurs at the top of the hill because of the bodies inertia forcing it above the train causing the body to float above the seat. The positive G’s occur that the bottom of the hill when they start to hit another bunny hop. It is the same deal with negative G’s deal, it’s the bodies inertia forcing the body down into the train. Potential- the potential energy happens at the top of the hill. It is basically gathering energy to force the train down the hill.Kinetic- happens at the bottom of the hill after the potential energy the kinetic energy takes over and forces the coaster throughout the track.
• The potential energy is at the highest point because it is the highest the roller coaster gets within the ride. As the train flows down the hill the ride starts to loose the potential energy and starts to gain kinetic energy and the train starts to gain speed as it goes down the hill so that the kinetic energy can force the roller coaster on throughout the rest of the roller coaster until it hits another inversion.
• This shows that the bottom of the first hill the kinetic energy is at its highest point or the greatest. This is because the train needs something to push it through to the next inversion or the next hill where the forces from that hill or inversion can take over. This is where the train starts to loose some speed because the kinetic energy takes over and the potential energy, which gives the train the speed is at its lowest point.
• Here the train is experiencing, not only potential energy but also negative G’s because of the bodies inertia is forcing it to float above there seats. Also this is where the potential energy takes over again so when the train moves down the hill and transfers over into kinetic energy again there will be enough speed for it to flow smoothly through the loop that follows.
• Here the train is feeling a lot of positive G’s as well as high kinetic energy. The positive G’s are actually very great here because the bodies inertia is forcing it down into the train. The kinetic energy increases because it is at the bottom of a two hills, one on either side of the train. The potential energy will build as the train gets closer and closer to the top of the loop.
• Here the potential energy is a little bit greater than the kinetic energy. This is because the train is at a higher point and that is where potential energy is formed at higher points on the roller coaster. The potential energy and kinetic energy will soon both drop to the lowest points because they will both be at a flat spot on the roller coaster.
• Here the roller coaster has a high kinetic energy because it is at the bottom of the loop and all the potential energy that was built up at the top of the loop is converted to kinetic energy. This is where the coaster is almost at its highest speed again because from here on kinetic energy is pushing the train through the track until it hits the end or another inversion.
• ### Roller Coaster SGP

1. 1. Roller CoasterPhysics &History<br />By: Ben Dworecki<br />
2. 2. What I will talk about<br />
3. 3. Physics<br />Gravity:<br />The force that moves the train.<br />Potential Energy:<br />The amount of energy stored as the train increases in height.. <br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
4. 4. Physics Cont’d<br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />Velocity:<br />The rate in which the train changes position. <br />Kinetic Energy:<br />The energy contained because of its motion.<br />K=½mv²<br />
5. 5. Physics contd.<br />Friction:<br />Causes the train to slow down<br />Centripetal Acceleration<br />The force that you feel when you go through twists, turns, and loops (G- Forces)<br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
6. 6. G-Forces (Centripetal Forces)<br />Positive G’s:<br />When the body feels heavier<br />Bottom of hills, turns, loops, and twists<br />Negative G’s:<br />When the body feels weightless<br />Top of hills with narrow top, or bunny hops.<br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
7. 7. http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster7.htm<br />
8. 8. G-forces affect on the body-Positive<br />Positive G’s make your body feel 2x’s your body weight<br />160 lbs<br />2 G’s= 320<br />3 G’s= 640<br />The body can not handle over 8 G’s<br />Black outs<br />“Black outs are the worse thing for you, your head goes blank and if your out too long there is a possibility of death” (Sean Tucker, Aerobics pilot, Discovery Chanel) <br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
9. 9. G-forces affect on the body-Negative<br />Negative G’s makes your body feel weightless<br />Float above your seat<br />Bunny hops<br />Steepest drop<br /> No real restriction on negative G’s<br />Only nausea<br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
10. 10. Types of roller coasters<br />Sit down<br />Seated in a train<br />Suspension<br />Feet dangling<br />http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster8.htm<br />
11. 11. Types of roller coasters cont’d<br />Stand up<br />Standing on the train<br />Flying<br />Superman style<br />http://adventure.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster8.htm<br />
12. 12. History of Roller Coasters<br />Russia in the 1600’s<br />Made of ice<br />Used sleds<br />Ice<br />Wood<br />America 1884<br />Made by railway companies to increase business on the weekends.<br />http://www.essortment.com/all/historyrollerc_puc.htm<br />
13. 13. History cont’d.<br />1884, first gravity roller coaster<br />Coney Island, New York<br />1898, first loop<br />Too strong of forces<br />http://www.essortment.com/all/historyrollerc_puc.htm<br />
14. 14. History cont’d<br /><ul><li>1929, roller coasters put on hold
15. 15. The Great Depression</li></ul>1950, first steel roller coaster<br />Two steel tubes used as the track<br />Larger lighter steel tubes used for support<br />http://www.ultimaterollercoaster.com/news/archives/2002/<br />http://www.essortment.com/all/historyrollerc_puc.htm<br />
16. 16. History Cont’d<br /><ul><li>1975, first looped roller coaster</li></ul>Magic Mountain, Cali.<br />2002, roller coaster hits 104 mph and heights up to 420 ft.<br />http://www.essortment.com/all/historyrollerc_puc.htm<br />
17. 17. Top Thrill Dragster<br />
18. 18. Advancements-New roller coasters<br />Steele tracks<br />Smoother ride<br />Safer<br />More speed<br /> Greater thrill<br />Inversions<br /> Sharp turns<br />Loops<br />Cork-screws<br />http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2002.web.dir/shawna_sastamoinen/roller_coasters.htm<br />
19. 19. Advancements-Older roller coasters<br />Wooden Track:<br />Bumpy rides<br />Less speed<br />No brakes within the ride<br />Too many hills<br />Many G’s<br />Bunny hops<br />http://www.angelfire.com/nj3/coaster5/history.html<br />
20. 20. Inversions<br />Batwing<br />(http://www.faculty.uaf.edu/ffdjw/211/2007/heimerl/corkscrew.html)<br />Bowtie<br />
21. 21.
22. 22. Inversions<br />Cobra Roll<br />(http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/bk_issue/2000/sepoct/feat4.html)<br />Butterfly<br />
23. 23.
24. 24. Inversions<br />Dive Loop<br />Fly-to-Lie<br />(http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/bk_issue/2000/sepoct/feat4.html)<br />
25. 25.
26. 26. Inversions<br />Flying Snake Dive<br />Immelmann Loop<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />
27. 27.
28. 28. Inversions<br />Inclined Loop<br />Inline Twist<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />(http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0313004/physicsofrollercoasters.html)<br />
29. 29.
30. 30. Inversions<br />Inverted Top Hat<br />Lie-to-Fly<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />(http://www.faculty.uaf.edu/ffdjw/211/2007/heimerl/corkscrew.html)<br />
31. 31.
32. 32. Inversions<br />Norwegian Loop<br />Pretzel Loop<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />(http://www.carnegiemuseums.org/cmag/bk_issue/2000/sepoct/feat4.html)<br />
33. 33.
34. 34. Inversions<br />Raven Turn<br />Roll Over<br />(http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0313004/physicsofrollercoasters.html)<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />
35. 35.
36. 36. Inversion<br />Sea Serpent<br />Twisting Dive<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />(http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0313004/physicsofrollercoasters.html)<br />
37. 37.
38. 38. Inversions<br />Vertical Loop<br />Zero-G Roll<br />(http://www.coasterforce.com/Inversions)<br />(http://www.snowboardcoaster.20fr.com/photo3.html)<br />
39. 39.
40. 40. Physics of a Corkscrew<br />Corkscrew<br />Velocity<br />Needs speed to make it through the inversion<br />Centripetal Force<br />Keeps the train on the track<br />Acceleration<br />As trains moves down the loop it increases acceleration<br />(http://www.funderstanding.com/coaster)<br />(http://library.thinkquest.org/TQ0313004/physicsofrollercoasters.html)<br />
41. 41.
42. 42. Physics of Bunny Hops<br />Negative/Positive G’s<br />Body float over your seat<br />Body slams back down at bottom of the hill<br />Potential Energy<br />Top of the hill the greatest<br />Kinetic Energy<br />Highest at the bottom of the hill<br />(http://www.rollercoastermedialibrary.com/DVDC.html)<br />
43. 43. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />
44. 44. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy Cont’d<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />
45. 45. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy Cont’d<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />
46. 46. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy Cont’d<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />
47. 47. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy Cont’d<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />
48. 48. How a roller coaster worksKinetic/Potential Energy Cont’d<br />(http://www.howstuffworks.com/roller-coaster.htm)<br />(http://library.thinkquest.org/2745/data/ke.htm)<br />