Flow of ions


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Flow of ions

  1. 1. Flow of ions.Alpha and beta units.Sodium-potassium pump, E2-Pi state. Calculated hydrocarbon boundaries of the lipid bilayer areshown as blue (intracellular) and red (extracellular) planesNa+/K+-ATPase (Sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as Na+/K+ pump,sodium-potassium pump, or sodium pump) is an antiporter enzyme (EC (an electrogenictransmembrane ATPase) located in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.Contents 1 Sodium-potassium pumps
  2. 2. 2 Function o 2.1 Resting potential o 2.2 Transport o 2.3 Controlling cell volume o 2.4 Functioning as signal transducer 3 Mechanism 4 Regulation o 4.1 Endogenous o 4.2 Exogenous 5 Discovery 6 Genes 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksSodium-potassium pumpsActive transport is responsible for cells containing relatively high concentrations of potassiumions but low concentrations of sodium ions. The mechanism responsible for this is the sodium-potassium pump, which moves these two ions in opposite directions across the plasmamembrane. This was investigated by following the passage of radioactively labeled ions acrossthe plasma membrane of certain cells. It was found that the concentrations of sodium andpotassium ions on the two sides of the membrane are interdependent, suggesting that the samecarrier transports both ions. It is now known that the carrier is an ATP-ase and that it pumpsthree sodium ions out of the cell for every two potassium ions pumped in.The sodium-potassium pump was discovered in the 1950s by a Danish scientist, Jens ChristianSkou, who was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1997. It marked an important step forward in ourunderstanding of how ions get into and out of cells, and it has a particular significance forexcitable cells such as nervous cells, which depend on this pump for responding to stimuli andtransmitting impulses.FunctionThe Na+/K+-ATPase helps maintain resting potential, avail transport, and regulate cellularvolume.[1] It also functions as signal transducer/integrator to regulate MAPK pathway, ROS, aswell as intracellular calcium. In most animal cells, the Na+/K+-ATPase is responsible for about1/5 of the cells energy expenditure.[2] For neurons, the Na+/K+-ATPase can be responsible for upto 2/3 of the cells energy expenditure.[3]Resting potentialSee also: Resting potential
  3. 3. In order to maintain the cell membrane potential, cells keep a low concentration of sodium ionsand high levels of potassium ions within the cell (intracellular). The sodium-potassium pumpmoves 3 sodium ions out and moves 2 potassium ions in, thus in total removing one positivecharge carrier from the intracellular space. Please see Mechanism for details.The action of the sodium-potassium pump is not the only mechanism responsible for thegeneration of the resting membrane potential. Also the selective permeability of the cells plasmamembrane for the different ions plays an important role. All mechanisms involved are explainedin the main article on generation of the resting membrane potential.TransportExport of sodium from the cell provides the driving force for several secondary activetransporters membrane transport proteins, which import glucose, amino acids, and other nutrientsinto the cell by use of the sodium gradient.Another important task of the Na+-K+ pump is to provide a Na+ gradient that is used by certaincarrier processes. In the gut, for example, sodium is transported out of the reabsorbing cell on theblood (interstitial fluid) side via the Na+-K+ pump, whereas, on the reabsorbing (luminal) side,the Na+-Glucose symporter uses the created Na+ gradient as a source of energy to import bothNa+ and glucose, which is far more efficient than simple diffusion. Similar processes are locatedin the renal tubular system.Controlling cell volumeFailure of the Na+-K+ pumps can result in swelling of the cell. A cells osmolarity is the sum ofthe concentrations of the various ion species and many proteins and other organic compoundsinside the cell. When this is higher than the osmolarity outside of the cell, water flows into thecell through osmosis. This can cause the cell to swell up and lyse. The Na+-K+ pump helps tomaintain the right concentrations of ions. Furthermore, when the cell begins to swell, thisautomatically activates the Na+-K+ pump. [citation needed]Functioning as signal transducerWithin the last decade, many independent labs have demonstrated that, in addition to theclassical ion transporting, this membrane protein can also relay extracellular ouabain-bindingsignalling into the cell through regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation. The downstreamsignals through ouabain-triggered protein phosphorylation events include to activate themitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal cascades, mitochondrial reactive oxygenspecies (ROS) production, as well as activation of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositoltriphosphate (IP3) receptor (IP3R) in different intracellular compartments.[4]Protein-protein interactions play very important role in Na+-K+ pump-mediated signaltransduction. For example, Na+-K+ pump interacts directly with Src, a non-receptor tyrosinekinase, to form a signaling receptor complex.[5] Src kinase is inhibited by Na+-K+ pump, while,upon ouabain binding, Src kinase domain will be released and then activated. Based on this
  4. 4. scenario, NaKtide, a peptide Src inhibitor derived from Na+-K+ pump, was developed as afunctional ouabain-Na+-K+ pump-mediated signal transduction.[6] Na+-K+ pump also interactswith ankyrin, IP3R, PI3K, PLC-gamma and cofilin.[7]Mechanism The pump, while binding ATP, binds 3 intracellular Na+ ions.[1] ATP is hydrolyzed, leading to phosphorylation of the pump at a highly conserved aspartate residue and subsequent release of ADP. A conformational change in the pump exposes the Na+ ions to the outside. The phosphorylated form of the pump has a low affinity for Na+ ions, so they are released. The pump binds 2 extracellular K+ ions. This causes the dephosphorylation of the pump, reverting it to its previous conformational state, transporting the K+ ions into the cell. The unphosphorylated form of the pump has a higher affinity for Na+ ions than K+ ions, so the two bound K+ ions are released. ATP binds, and the process starts again.RegulationEndogenousThe Na+/K+-ATPase is upregulated by cAMP.[8] Thus, substances causing an increase in cAMPupregulate the Na+/K+-ATPase. These include the ligands of the Gs-coupled GPCRs. In contrast,substances causing a decrease in cAMP downregulate the Na+/K+-ATPase. These include theligands of the Gi-coupled GPCRs.Note: Early studies indicated the opposite effect, but these were later found to be inaccurate dueto additional complicating factors. [citation needed]ExogenousThe Na+-K+-ATPase can be pharmacologically modified by administrating drugs exogenously.For instance, Na+-K+-ATPase found in the membrane of heart cells is an important target ofcardiac glycosides (for example digoxin and ouabain), inotropic drugs used to improve heartperformance by increasing its force of contraction.
  5. 5. Contraction of any muscle is dependent on a 100- to 10,000-times-higher-than-restingintracellular Ca2+ concentration, which, as soon as it is put back again on its normal level by acarrier enzyme in the plasma membrane, and a calcium pump in sarcoplasmic reticulum, musclerelaxes.Since this carrier enzyme (Na+-Ca2+ translocator) uses the Na gradient generated by the Na+-K+pump to remove Ca2+ from the intracellular space, slowing down the Na+-K+ pump results in apermanently elevated Ca2+ level in the muscle, which may be the mechanism of the long-terminotropic effect of cardiac glycosides such as digoxin.DiscoveryNa+/K+-ATPase was discovered by Jens Christian Skou in 1957 while working as assistantprofessor at the Department of Physiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark. He published hiswork that year.[9]In 1997, he received one-half of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase."[10]