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The French and Indian War

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  • 1. The French and Indian War By Brad Dougherty & Peter Shim
  • 2. Origins of the War
    • By the 1750’s, English and French settlements were expanding
    • The French had claimed a region of the interior stretching from The Great Lakes south to Louisiana
    • To secure their hold, the French built up communities and fortresses
  • 3. Origins of the War (cont’d)
    • The English were preparing to spread across the Appalachian Mtns.
    • In 1749 a group of Virginia businessmen secured 500,000 acres of Ohio Valley land for settlement
    • The French, in an effort to keep the English from expanding, constructed new fortresses in the Ohio Valley
  • 4. Origins of the War (cont’d)
    • The English interpreted this as a threat to their settlements and began to make military preparations
  • 5. Claims to North America before 1750
  • 6. Beginning of the War
    • In the summer of 1745, the governor of Virginia sent a militia force into the Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion
    • This militia was led by an inexperienced young colonel named George Washington
  • 7. Fort Necessity
    • Washington built a small fort called Fort Necessity
    • After an unsuccessful attack on the French, the French trapped Washington and his troops inside the fort
    • After a third of his troops were killed, Washington was forced to surrender
  • 8. 1754 - 1756
    • Primarily a North American Conflict
    • Dominated by French
    • Most Indian tribes allied with the French
    • Colonists had to manage the war themselves
  • 9. 1756 – 1758
    • Governments of France and Britain formally opened hostilities
    • In 1757, the English secretary of state William Pitt started to bring the war effort under control of the British government
    • This caused resentment from the colonists
    • By 1758, the friction between the colonists and the British threatened to bring the war efforts to a halt
  • 10. 1758 - 1760
    • This caused Pitt to relax some of the policies
    • Resulted in an immediate increase in colonist support
    • Pitt dispatched a large number of additional troops
    • In July 1759, the fortress of Louisbourg was captured by Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe
    • In September, Quebec fell to Wolfe and his army
    • A year later, the French formally surrendered
  • 11. Land Reorganization
    • Britain gained control over half the North American continent, including:
      • French Canada
      • All French territorial claims east of the Mississippi River
      • Spanish Florida
    • In return, Britain gave Cuba and the Philippines back to Spain
    • France compensated its Spanish ally for the loss of Florida by giving it title to all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River
  • 12. Effects on the British Empire
    • Meant that expansion could continue westward into the New World
    • Caused substantial debt
    • Generated much resentment towards the colonists
    • Set plans in motion to have greater control over the colonies
  • 13. Effects on the Indian Tribes
    • All the tribes that had allied with the French were now left alienated, and on bad terms with the British
    • The Iroquois continued to contest British control of the Ohio River Valley
  • 14. Effects on American Colonists
    • Learned to unite
    • Left lots of space to colonize, but the British decided otherwise
    • The British proclaimed that no one could settle west of the Allegheny Mtns.
    • They set up a permanent army, paid for by the colonists’ taxes, to keep them from expanding
    • This infuriated the colonists
    • These policies became a major part in the reasons behind the American Revolution
  • 15. Bibliography
    • http://odur.let.rug.nl/~usa/E/7yearswar/fiw03.htm
    • http://encarta.msn.com/media_461516744_761575603_-1_1/French_and_Indian_War.html
    • http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761575603/French_and_Indian_War.html
    • http://www.learner.org/biographyofamerica/prog03/maps/page02.html