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Nuclear Proliferation

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  • 1. Nuclear Proliferation By Brad Dougherty
  • 2. How Nuclear Bombs Work
  • 3. Types of Bombs
    • Fission bombs
      • Gun-triggered fission bomb (Little Boy), which was detonated over Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945
      • Implosion-triggered fission bomb (Fat Man), which was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945
    • Fusion bombs
      • Teller-Ulam design of a hydrogen fusion bomb , which was test-detonated on Elugelap Island in 1952
  • 4. Gun Method - Fission
    • Requires 20-25kg of Uranium-235
    • Easy to make but inefficient
    • “ Little Boy”, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was this type of bomb
    • The explosives fire and propel the bullet down the barrel.
    • The bullet strikes the sphere and generator, initiating the fission reaction.
    • The fission reaction begins.
    • The bomb explodes.
  • 5. Implosion Method - Fission
    • Uses plutonium, rather than uranium
    • “ Fat Man” was of this type
    • The explosives fired, creating a shock wave.
    • The shock wave compressed the core.
    • The fission reaction began.
    • The bomb exploded.
  • 6. Thermonuclear Weapons (Fusion)
    • Many use the Teller-Ulam design
    • There are a few different designs, but the full details of such weapons have not been declassified
  • 7. Effects of a nuclear explosion
    • The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four primary categories:
      • Blast—40-60% of total energy
      • Thermal radiation—30-50% of total energy
      • Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy
      • Residual radiation (fallout)—5-10% of total energy
    • Blast Radius – the area around the blast in which total destruction occurs
    • Heat Effect Radius – the area around the blast where fires and scorching may occur
  • 8. Nuclear Testing
  • 9. Nuclear Tests
    • There have been approximately 2,000 nuclear tests to date:
      • U.S.: 1,030 tests (involving 1,125 devices)
      • Soviet Union: 715 tests
      • France: 210 tests
      • Britain: 45 tests
      • China: 45 tests
      • India: 6 tests
      • Pakistan: 6 tests
  • 10.  
  • 11. Alleged Tests
    • Japan
      • There is a report that says that the Japanese may have been able to test in Korea on August 12, 1945
    • Israel/South Africa
      • May have detonated a nuclear device on September 22, 1979 in the Indian Ocean
    • North Korea
      • September 9, 2004 it was reported that there had been a large explosion at the Chinese/North Korean border
  • 12. Nuclear Test Images Operation Trinity Operation Crossroads Able & Baker
  • 13. Nuclear Arms Control
  • 14. Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)
    • Intended to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations
    • Objectives:
      • to put an end to the armaments race
      • eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons
  • 15. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1968)
    • 5 states permitted to have nuclear weapons:
      • United States, United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union (Russia), China
    • The 5 Nuclear Weapons States (NWS) agree not to transfer nuclear weapons technology to other states
    • Non-NWS state parties agree not to seek to develop nuclear weapons
  • 16. NPT (continued)
    • On May 11, 1995, more than 170 countries decided to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions
    • Only 4 countries that belong to the UN have not signed this treaty:
      • India, Pakistan, Israel, and Cuba
  • 17. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1996)
    • Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes
    • Basic Obligations:
      • Each State agrees not to carry out a nuclear weapon explosion and prevent such explosions under its jurisdiction
      • Each State will refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon explosion
  • 18. The End

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