Nuclear Proliferation


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Nuclear Proliferation

  1. 1. Nuclear Proliferation By Brad Dougherty
  2. 2. How Nuclear Bombs Work
  3. 3. Types of Bombs <ul><li>Fission bombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gun-triggered fission bomb (Little Boy), which was detonated over Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implosion-triggered fission bomb (Fat Man), which was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fusion bombs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teller-Ulam design of a hydrogen fusion bomb , which was test-detonated on Elugelap Island in 1952 </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Gun Method - Fission <ul><li>Requires 20-25kg of Uranium-235 </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to make but inefficient </li></ul><ul><li>“ Little Boy”, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was this type of bomb </li></ul><ul><li>The explosives fire and propel the bullet down the barrel. </li></ul><ul><li>The bullet strikes the sphere and generator, initiating the fission reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>The fission reaction begins. </li></ul><ul><li>The bomb explodes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Implosion Method - Fission <ul><li>Uses plutonium, rather than uranium </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fat Man” was of this type </li></ul><ul><li>The explosives fired, creating a shock wave. </li></ul><ul><li>The shock wave compressed the core. </li></ul><ul><li>The fission reaction began. </li></ul><ul><li>The bomb exploded. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Thermonuclear Weapons (Fusion) <ul><li>Many use the Teller-Ulam design </li></ul><ul><li>There are a few different designs, but the full details of such weapons have not been declassified </li></ul>
  7. 7. Effects of a nuclear explosion <ul><li>The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four primary categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blast—40-60% of total energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal radiation—30-50% of total energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Residual radiation (fallout)—5-10% of total energy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blast Radius – the area around the blast in which total destruction occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Effect Radius – the area around the blast where fires and scorching may occur </li></ul>
  8. 8. Nuclear Testing
  9. 9. Nuclear Tests <ul><li>There have been approximately 2,000 nuclear tests to date: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S.: 1,030 tests (involving 1,125 devices) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union: 715 tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France: 210 tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain: 45 tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China: 45 tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India: 6 tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pakistan: 6 tests </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Alleged Tests <ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is a report that says that the Japanese may have been able to test in Korea on August 12, 1945 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Israel/South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have detonated a nuclear device on September 22, 1979 in the Indian Ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>September 9, 2004 it was reported that there had been a large explosion at the Chinese/North Korean border </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Nuclear Test Images Operation Trinity Operation Crossroads Able & Baker
  12. 13. Nuclear Arms Control
  13. 14. Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963) <ul><li>Intended to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to put an end to the armaments race </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1968) <ul><li>5 states permitted to have nuclear weapons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>United States, United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union (Russia), China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 5 Nuclear Weapons States (NWS) agree not to transfer nuclear weapons technology to other states </li></ul><ul><li>Non-NWS state parties agree not to seek to develop nuclear weapons </li></ul>
  15. 16. NPT (continued) <ul><li>On May 11, 1995, more than 170 countries decided to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Only 4 countries that belong to the UN have not signed this treaty: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India, Pakistan, Israel, and Cuba </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1996) <ul><li>Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Obligations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each State agrees not to carry out a nuclear weapon explosion and prevent such explosions under its jurisdiction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each State will refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon explosion </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. The End