Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Nuclear Proliferation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Nuclear Proliferation


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Nuclear Proliferation By Brad Dougherty
  • 2. How Nuclear Bombs Work
  • 3. Types of Bombs
    • Fission bombs
      • Gun-triggered fission bomb (Little Boy), which was detonated over Hiroshima, Japan, in 1945
      • Implosion-triggered fission bomb (Fat Man), which was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945
    • Fusion bombs
      • Teller-Ulam design of a hydrogen fusion bomb , which was test-detonated on Elugelap Island in 1952
  • 4. Gun Method - Fission
    • Requires 20-25kg of Uranium-235
    • Easy to make but inefficient
    • “ Little Boy”, the bomb dropped on Hiroshima, was this type of bomb
    • The explosives fire and propel the bullet down the barrel.
    • The bullet strikes the sphere and generator, initiating the fission reaction.
    • The fission reaction begins.
    • The bomb explodes.
  • 5. Implosion Method - Fission
    • Uses plutonium, rather than uranium
    • “ Fat Man” was of this type
    • The explosives fired, creating a shock wave.
    • The shock wave compressed the core.
    • The fission reaction began.
    • The bomb exploded.
  • 6. Thermonuclear Weapons (Fusion)
    • Many use the Teller-Ulam design
    • There are a few different designs, but the full details of such weapons have not been declassified
  • 7. Effects of a nuclear explosion
    • The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four primary categories:
      • Blast—40-60% of total energy
      • Thermal radiation—30-50% of total energy
      • Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy
      • Residual radiation (fallout)—5-10% of total energy
    • Blast Radius – the area around the blast in which total destruction occurs
    • Heat Effect Radius – the area around the blast where fires and scorching may occur
  • 8. Nuclear Testing
  • 9. Nuclear Tests
    • There have been approximately 2,000 nuclear tests to date:
      • U.S.: 1,030 tests (involving 1,125 devices)
      • Soviet Union: 715 tests
      • France: 210 tests
      • Britain: 45 tests
      • China: 45 tests
      • India: 6 tests
      • Pakistan: 6 tests
  • 10.  
  • 11. Alleged Tests
    • Japan
      • There is a report that says that the Japanese may have been able to test in Korea on August 12, 1945
    • Israel/South Africa
      • May have detonated a nuclear device on September 22, 1979 in the Indian Ocean
    • North Korea
      • September 9, 2004 it was reported that there had been a large explosion at the Chinese/North Korean border
  • 12. Nuclear Test Images Operation Trinity Operation Crossroads Able & Baker
  • 13. Nuclear Arms Control
  • 14. Limited Test Ban Treaty (1963)
    • Intended to obtain an agreement on general and complete disarmament under strict international control in accordance with the objectives of the United Nations
    • Objectives:
      • to put an end to the armaments race
      • eliminate incentives for the production and testing of all kinds of weapons, including nuclear weapons
  • 15. Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty (1968)
    • 5 states permitted to have nuclear weapons:
      • United States, United Kingdom, France, Soviet Union (Russia), China
    • The 5 Nuclear Weapons States (NWS) agree not to transfer nuclear weapons technology to other states
    • Non-NWS state parties agree not to seek to develop nuclear weapons
  • 16. NPT (continued)
    • On May 11, 1995, more than 170 countries decided to extend the treaty indefinitely and without conditions
    • Only 4 countries that belong to the UN have not signed this treaty:
      • India, Pakistan, Israel, and Cuba
  • 17. Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1996)
    • Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes
    • Basic Obligations:
      • Each State agrees not to carry out a nuclear weapon explosion and prevent such explosions under its jurisdiction
      • Each State will refrain from causing, encouraging, or in any way participating in the carrying out of any nuclear weapon explosion
  • 18. The End