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Scaffolding Thinking Skills for Primary Students Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University webquest.org/workshops/sts/
Overview <ul><li>A graphical model for thinking about WebQuests and any constructivist activity </li></ul><ul><li>Examples...
Beyond Blobmongering
The Egyptologist Story <ul><li>Does magic happen when you give children access to an adult expert? </li></ul>
What is Scaffolding? Scaffolding is a temporary structure which provides help at specific points in the learning process. ...
Why Scaffold? <ul><li>Because some learners are being left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Because you can’t be everywhere at onc...
Four Useful Resources <ul><li>ExploraTree </li></ul><ul><li>Gliffy </li></ul><ul><li>Read Write Think </li></ul><ul><li>Gr...
Traditional Teacher Student
Traditional Teacher Student Transmission
Inputs Constructivist
Inputs Transformation Constructivist
Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist
Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds
Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds
Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds Production Scaffolds
How Do We Scaffold? <ul><li>by… </li></ul><ul><li>Providing outlines, guides and templates </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding think...
Key attributes of good scaffolding <ul><li>Available for Just-in-time learning </li></ul><ul><li>Skippable by those who do...
Reception Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on how to interview an expert </li></ul><ul><li>Reading guides </li></ul><ul><li>Dict...
Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Experiencing India’s Caste System provides a glossary because much of the vocabulary wi...
Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Experiencing India’s Caste System provides a glossary because much of the vocabulary wi...
Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Peyri Hamada provided a visual organizer to help students gather information about the ...
Reception Scaffold Example
Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>In the Early Jazz Wax Museum WebQuest, students capture the chronology and musicians. <...
Reception Scaffold Example
Reception Scaffold Example http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/jhwebquest . htm
http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/themes . htm
Back to the Egyptologist Story <ul><li>Does magic happen when you give children access to an adult expert? </li></ul>Some ...
 
Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every  Input , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to...
Practice 1 Finding opportunities to add a reception scaffold
http: //questgarden .com/63/89/1/080407200628/index. htm
Transformation Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on applying specific transformations </li></ul>
Transformation Scaffold Example <ul><li>How do the menus of two restaurants differ? Which one is healthier? </li></ul>This...
Transformation Scaffold Example <ul><li>Solving a mystery involves building up to a conclusion through a foundation of inf...
 
ExploraTree http://www. exploratree .org. uk/explore/
Knowing Tree http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=955 & permission_id=template A knowing tree guides the us...
Transformation Scaffold Example http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/jhwebquest . htm
http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/storymap . htm
Comparison Matrix http://www.graphic. org/commat .html
Compare & Contrast <ul><li>This web design WebQuest includes an organizer to support this cognitive activity </li></ul>htt...
http: //macserver .independence.k12. ia . us/~rsheets/rjsheets/graphicorg . htm
Compare & Contrast http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=956 & permission_id=template
PMI http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=7864 & permission_id=template PMI scaffolds the decision-making pr...
Reverse Planning http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=966 & permission_id=template Start at the desired end...
S.C.A.M.P.E.R. http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=968 & permission_id=template Generate ideas for improvi...
Read Write Think http://www. readwritethink .org/
Venn Diagram http://www. readwritethink . org/materials/venn/
Production Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on organizing information in particular formats </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted writing t...
Production Scaffold Example http://home. austin . rr .com/anamc/ScottBoys/Scottsboro10th.html This WebQuest contains a pro...
Production Scaffold Example http://home. austin . rr . com/anamc/ScottBoys/ScottAessay .doc
Production Scaffold Example <ul><li>Pinoy Pride asks students to create a short play about one of several stages in Filipi...
Drama Map http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=12
Letter Generator http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=5
Persuasion Map http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=34
Practice 2 Finding opportunities to add a transformation or production scaffold
Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every  Input , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to...
Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every  Transformation , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students kn...
Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every  Output , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how t...
http: //questgarden .com/62/91/3/080323072822/
Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds Production Scaffolds
Where Do Scaffolds Go? PROCESS 1. Sfk fjdkjf slkjf slkjf s jdfjkdfjlskjf  slkjf   2. Gjks gjgls hhslkje sjdk a ghj dh 3. A...
Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>There’s an appropriate balance point. It depends on your learners. </li></ul>Spoon Feeding ...
Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Don’t scaffold everything… there isn’t time. Pick the 20% that solves 80% of your problems....
Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Encourage those who can skip or go beyond the scaffolds to do so. If all student products l...
Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Over time, as your learners internalize the structures and skills you want them to have, sc...
Four Useful Resources <ul><li>ExploraTree </li></ul><ul><li>Read Write Think </li></ul><ul><li>Gliffy </li></ul><ul><li>Gr...
Gliffy http://www. gliffy .com
Graphic.org http://www.graphic.org/
Scaffolding Thinking Skills for Primary Students Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University webquest.org/workshops/sts/
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  • Primary School Teacher Workshop - May 6 Title:  Scaffolding Thinking Skills for Primary Students Description:  This workshop covers the use of graphical organizers and other tools to help young learners practice and internalize higher level thinking skills while using web-based information. Such organizers can be integrated into any lesson that requires analysis, creativity, problem-solving, decision-making or synthesis. By placing graphic organizers appropriately within the flow of a lesson, students can be guided to think at a level that is more advanced than they would have done on their own. With repeated practice over many lessons, their thinking will incorporate these structures and make them better thinkers when new situations come their way. Among the organizer types to be discussed: PMI charts and decision-trees to scaffold decision-making; semantic feature charts to aid analytical thinking; cause-and-effect diagrams to aid understanding of complex systems. Examples of the use of these organizers within WebQuests will be shown. 
  • Transcript of "Scaffolding Thinking Skills HK2"

    1. 1. Scaffolding Thinking Skills for Primary Students Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University webquest.org/workshops/sts/
    2. 2. Overview <ul><li>A graphical model for thinking about WebQuests and any constructivist activity </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of three points at which graphical scaffolding helps </li></ul><ul><li>A taxonomy of scaffolding types </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to a number of useful web sites </li></ul><ul><li>Practice at adding scaffolding to WebQuests that need them </li></ul>
    3. 3. Beyond Blobmongering
    4. 4. The Egyptologist Story <ul><li>Does magic happen when you give children access to an adult expert? </li></ul>
    5. 5. What is Scaffolding? Scaffolding is a temporary structure which provides help at specific points in the learning process. It allows learners to complete a challenging task which they would not be able to accomplish without help.
    6. 6. Why Scaffold? <ul><li>Because some learners are being left behind </li></ul><ul><li>Because you can’t be everywhere at once, so it’s useful to capture some of the help you’d give and make it available for just-in-time learning. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Four Useful Resources <ul><li>ExploraTree </li></ul><ul><li>Gliffy </li></ul><ul><li>Read Write Think </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic.org </li></ul>
    8. 8. Traditional Teacher Student
    9. 9. Traditional Teacher Student Transmission
    10. 10. Inputs Constructivist
    11. 11. Inputs Transformation Constructivist
    12. 12. Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist
    13. 13. Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds
    14. 14. Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds
    15. 15. Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds Production Scaffolds
    16. 16. How Do We Scaffold? <ul><li>by… </li></ul><ul><li>Providing outlines, guides and templates </li></ul><ul><li>Guiding thinking through visual and other means </li></ul>
    17. 17. Key attributes of good scaffolding <ul><li>Available for Just-in-time learning </li></ul><ul><li>Skippable by those who don’t need it </li></ul><ul><li>Blends content and structure to an appropriate degree </li></ul><ul><li>Fades like the Cheshire Cat smile as students become more adept </li></ul>
    18. 18. Reception Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on how to interview an expert </li></ul><ul><li>Reading guides </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionaries and glossaries </li></ul><ul><li>Observation guides </li></ul>
    19. 19. Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Experiencing India’s Caste System provides a glossary because much of the vocabulary will be new to the learners. </li></ul>http://teachers. eusd .k12.ca. us/mguerena/castewebquest/index . htm
    20. 20. Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Experiencing India’s Caste System provides a glossary because much of the vocabulary will be new to the learners. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>Peyri Hamada provided a visual organizer to help students gather information about the metric system. </li></ul>
    22. 22. Reception Scaffold Example
    23. 23. Reception Scaffold Example <ul><li>In the Early Jazz Wax Museum WebQuest, students capture the chronology and musicians. </li></ul>A partly completed timeline would help them organize data as they find it.
    24. 24. Reception Scaffold Example
    25. 25. Reception Scaffold Example http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/jhwebquest . htm
    26. 26. http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/themes . htm
    27. 27. Back to the Egyptologist Story <ul><li>Does magic happen when you give children access to an adult expert? </li></ul>Some visual scaffolding would have helped!
    28. 29. Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every Input , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to make sense of this source of information? </li></ul>Inputs
    29. 30. Practice 1 Finding opportunities to add a reception scaffold
    30. 31. http: //questgarden .com/63/89/1/080407200628/index. htm
    31. 32. Transformation Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on applying specific transformations </li></ul>
    32. 33. Transformation Scaffold Example <ul><li>How do the menus of two restaurants differ? Which one is healthier? </li></ul>This calls for a Venn Diagram http: //questgarden .com/63/04/8/080329111217/
    33. 34. Transformation Scaffold Example <ul><li>Solving a mystery involves building up to a conclusion through a foundation of inferences based on data. </li></ul>This calls for an Inductive Tower!
    34. 36. ExploraTree http://www. exploratree .org. uk/explore/
    35. 37. Knowing Tree http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=955 & permission_id=template A knowing tree guides the user to construct an thesis based on evidence
    36. 38. Transformation Scaffold Example http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/jhwebquest . htm
    37. 39. http://www-ma. beth .k12.pa. us/jhoke/jhwebquest/storymap . htm
    38. 40. Comparison Matrix http://www.graphic. org/commat .html
    39. 41. Compare & Contrast <ul><li>This web design WebQuest includes an organizer to support this cognitive activity </li></ul>http: //macserver .independence.k12. ia . us/~rsheets/rjsheets/index . htm
    40. 42. http: //macserver .independence.k12. ia . us/~rsheets/rjsheets/graphicorg . htm
    41. 43. Compare & Contrast http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=956 & permission_id=template
    42. 44. PMI http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=7864 & permission_id=template PMI scaffolds the decision-making process by noting things that are positive, negative or just interesting
    43. 45. Reverse Planning http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=966 & permission_id=template Start at the desired end result and then figure out how to get there.
    44. 46. S.C.A.M.P.E.R. http://www. exploratree .org. uk/app/ ? document_id=968 & permission_id=template Generate ideas for improving a product or situation by changing things in various ways.
    45. 47. Read Write Think http://www. readwritethink .org/
    46. 48. Venn Diagram http://www. readwritethink . org/materials/venn/
    47. 49. Production Scaffolds <ul><li>Guidance on organizing information in particular formats </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted writing templates </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia templates </li></ul>
    48. 50. Production Scaffold Example http://home. austin . rr .com/anamc/ScottBoys/Scottsboro10th.html This WebQuest contains a prompted writing guide to help students prepare their closing arguments.
    49. 51. Production Scaffold Example http://home. austin . rr . com/anamc/ScottBoys/ScottAessay .doc
    50. 52. Production Scaffold Example <ul><li>Pinoy Pride asks students to create a short play about one of several stages in Filipino history. </li></ul>Providing a diagram of the structure of a play would give the authors a place to compose their outline.
    51. 53. Drama Map http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=12
    52. 54. Letter Generator http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=5
    53. 55. Persuasion Map http://www. readwritethink . org/student_mat/student_material .asp?id=34
    54. 56. Practice 2 Finding opportunities to add a transformation or production scaffold
    55. 57. Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every Input , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to make sense of this source of information? </li></ul>Inputs
    56. 58. Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every Transformation , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to manipulate information in this way? </li></ul>
    57. 59. Scaffolding Your Own WebQuest <ul><li>For every Output , ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><li>Do all of my students know how to produce information in this format? </li></ul>Outputs
    58. 60. http: //questgarden .com/62/91/3/080323072822/
    59. 61. Inputs Transformation Outputs Constructivist Reception Scaffolds Transformation Scaffolds Production Scaffolds
    60. 62. Where Do Scaffolds Go? PROCESS 1. Sfk fjdkjf slkjf slkjf s jdfjkdfjlskjf slkjf 2. Gjks gjgls hhslkje sjdk a ghj dh 3. A ngk l wulejk a fkd lkj s fjigl 4. Sjfkll su sljna nms f alkd ffhja 5. Sjf a kj a lblkijb jjkkla bjk
    61. 63. Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>There’s an appropriate balance point. It depends on your learners. </li></ul>Spoon Feeding Sink or Swim
    62. 64. Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Don’t scaffold everything… there isn’t time. Pick the 20% that solves 80% of your problems. </li></ul>20% 80%
    63. 65. Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Encourage those who can skip or go beyond the scaffolds to do so. If all student products look the same, something’s wrong. </li></ul>
    64. 66. Degrees of Scaffolding <ul><li>Over time, as your learners internalize the structures and skills you want them to have, scaffold less. </li></ul>
    65. 67. Four Useful Resources <ul><li>ExploraTree </li></ul><ul><li>Read Write Think </li></ul><ul><li>Gliffy </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic.org </li></ul>
    66. 68. Gliffy http://www. gliffy .com
    67. 69. Graphic.org http://www.graphic.org/
    68. 70. Scaffolding Thinking Skills for Primary Students Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University webquest.org/workshops/sts/
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