Decision-Making:  A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University
 
 
 
 
Summarize Design Decide Create Predict
Adult life is full of decisions
Adult life is full of decisions
Adult life is full of decisions
Adult life is full of decisions
Adult life is full of decisions
Max Planck Society – April 14, 2008
Decisions we allow kids to make <ul><li>Which book would you like to do your report on? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to b...
A decision  I  have to make…
 
First…. <ul><li>Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content? </li></ul>
Second… <ul><li>Look for (or create) disequilibrium </li></ul>
Strategy 1: Create an Opportunity <ul><li>Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from amon...
Strategy 2: Recommend a Solution <ul><li>Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on wha...
Strategy 3: Change the Situation <ul><li>Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to r...
Create an Opportunity
Create an Opportunity
Create an Opportunity
Recommend a Solution
Change the Situation
To summarize, look for one of these: <ul><li>Opportunity  for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to an  existing pro...
 
 
Teaching decision-making skills <ul><li>Should occur in context, not isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Should provide reusable t...
PMI Technique <ul><li>Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark each one as Plus, Minus or I...
Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting
Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it wi...
Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it wi...
Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it wi...
Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it wi...
Another technique: Decision Trees <ul><li>Useful for decisions more complicated than yes/no. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down...
Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10
Other Techniques to Try <ul><li>Pareto Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis </l...
A Great Resource http:// www.mindtools.com
<ul><li>A practice problem… </li></ul>
 
What shall we do? <ul><li>First, count off by 6’s. </li></ul>
6 Thinking Hats
1. Blue Hat <ul><li>Hat worn by people chairing meetings.  </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to the process and directs the...
2. White Hat <ul><li>focus on the data available.  </li></ul><ul><li>look at the information you have, and see </li></ul><...
3. Green Hat <ul><li>stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. </li></ul><ul><...
4. Red Hat <ul><li>looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion.  </li></ul><ul><li>tries to think how oth...
5. Yellow Hat <ul><li>the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it....
6. Black Hat <ul><li>looks at all the bad points of the decision.  </li></ul><ul><li>tries to see why it might not work.  ...
<ul><li>You have 7 minutes to decide on what we should do </li></ul>
<ul><li>Time’s up! </li></ul>
In conclusion… <ul><li>Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn </li></ul><ul><ul...
Decision-Making:  A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University
 
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Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learners

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Decision-Making: A Necessary and Neglected Skill for 21st Century LearningDescription: The world is filled with problems to be solved and decisions to be made. The curriculum, typically, is not. Too often schools present the world as a mass of facts and concepts to be remembered rather than as an arena in which to apply what's being learned. Thanks to the internet, schools now have access to current dilemmas and choices facing humanity in every discipline.  How can you create a more active learning environment by finding opportunities for students to practice decision making in math, social studies, even English?  Some decision-making techniques scaled down from the corporate world will be presented as ways to engage your learners more deeply.

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  • Keynote - May 3 Title : Decision-Making: A Necessary and Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Description:  The world is filled with problems to be solved and decisions to be made. The curriculum, typically, is not. Too often schools present the world as a mass of facts and concepts to be remembered rather than as an arena in which to apply what&apos;s being learned. Thanks to the internet, schools now have access to current dilemmas and choices facing humanity in every discipline.  How can you create a more active learning environment by finding opportunities for students to practice decision making in math, social studies, even English?  Some decision-making techniques scaled down from the corporate world will be presented as ways to engage your learners more deeply.
  • Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learners

    1. 1. Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University
    2. 6. Summarize Design Decide Create Predict
    3. 7. Adult life is full of decisions
    4. 8. Adult life is full of decisions
    5. 9. Adult life is full of decisions
    6. 10. Adult life is full of decisions
    7. 11. Adult life is full of decisions
    8. 12. Max Planck Society – April 14, 2008
    9. 13. Decisions we allow kids to make <ul><li>Which book would you like to do your report on? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you want to be the record-keeper, the spokesperson or the artist? </li></ul><ul><li>Color the sky with whatever crayon you like </li></ul>
    10. 14. A decision I have to make…
    11. 16. First…. <ul><li>Ask yourself, when do adults need to apply this content? </li></ul>
    12. 17. Second… <ul><li>Look for (or create) disequilibrium </li></ul>
    13. 18. Strategy 1: Create an Opportunity <ul><li>Identify (or make up) an opportunity for action that requires choosing from among alternatives . </li></ul>
    14. 19. Strategy 2: Recommend a Solution <ul><li>Identify a real problem over which there is strong disagreement and decide on what to recommend . </li></ul>
    15. 20. Strategy 3: Change the Situation <ul><li>Change the situation to create new problems that someone needs to decide how to respond to . </li></ul>
    16. 21. Create an Opportunity
    17. 22. Create an Opportunity
    18. 23. Create an Opportunity
    19. 24. Recommend a Solution
    20. 25. Change the Situation
    21. 26. To summarize, look for one of these: <ul><li>Opportunity for improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to an existing problem </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>… and pick situations that require learning what you need them to learn. </li></ul>
    22. 29. Teaching decision-making skills <ul><li>Should occur in context, not isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Should provide reusable techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately should be internalized by repeated practice </li></ul>
    23. 30. PMI Technique <ul><li>Make a list of aspects of the choice to be made. </li></ul><ul><li>Mark each one as Plus, Minus or Interesting </li></ul><ul><li>Optionally, put a number from 1 to 10 to indicate how important each aspect is </li></ul><ul><li>Total up the number of items in each column </li></ul>http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newTED_05.htm
    24. 31. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting
    25. 32. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper
    26. 33. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately
    27. 34. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one Won’t be ready for Spring Break Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper It may break again in 18 months or less We could get a new one immediately
    28. 35. Bernie’s Plasma TV Should I go ahead and have the set repaired? Plus Minus Interesting Less expensive than replacing it with a new one (+5) Won’t be ready for Spring Break (-3) Repairman says LCD is better than plasma If it lasts 3 years, the replacement will be bigger, better and cheaper (+7) It may break again in 18 months or less (-4) We could get a new one immediately (-4) 12 -11
    29. 36. Another technique: Decision Trees <ul><li>Useful for decisions more complicated than yes/no. </li></ul><ul><li>Breaks down big decisions into a series of smaller ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows you to evaluate the end points to see which path is best. </li></ul>
    30. 37. Bernie’s Plasma Decision Tree $1800 $2400 $800 7/10 10/10 10/10
    31. 38. Other Techniques to Try <ul><li>Pareto Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Force Field Analysis </li></ul>
    32. 39. A Great Resource http:// www.mindtools.com
    33. 40. <ul><li>A practice problem… </li></ul>
    34. 42. What shall we do? <ul><li>First, count off by 6’s. </li></ul>
    35. 43. 6 Thinking Hats
    36. 44. 1. Blue Hat <ul><li>Hat worn by people chairing meetings. </li></ul><ul><li>Pays attention to the process and directs the other hats to pitch in </li></ul>
    37. 45. 2. White Hat <ul><li>focus on the data available. </li></ul><ul><li>look at the information you have, and see </li></ul><ul><li>look for gaps in your knowledge, and either try to fill them or take account of them. </li></ul>
    38. 46. 3. Green Hat <ul><li>stands for creativity. This is where you can develop creative solutions to a problem. </li></ul><ul><li>freewheeling way of thinking, in which there is little criticism of ideas. </li></ul>
    39. 47. 4. Red Hat <ul><li>looks at problems using intuition, gut reaction, and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to think how other people will react emotionally. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to understand the responses of people who do not fully know your reasoning. </li></ul>
    40. 48. 5. Yellow Hat <ul><li>the optimistic viewpoint that helps you to see all the benefits of the decision and the value in it. </li></ul><ul><li>helps you to keep going when everything looks gloomy and difficult. </li></ul>
    41. 49. 6. Black Hat <ul><li>looks at all the bad points of the decision. </li></ul><ul><li>tries to see why it might not work. </li></ul><ul><li>highlights the weak points in a plan. </li></ul>
    42. 50. <ul><li>You have 7 minutes to decide on what we should do </li></ul>
    43. 51. <ul><li>Time’s up! </li></ul>
    44. 52. In conclusion… <ul><li>Look for decisions your kids can make as part of learning what they need to learn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an opportunity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommend a solution to an existing problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scaffold that decision-making experience by providing techniques that they can use outside of class </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Thinking Hats </li></ul></ul>
    45. 53. Decision-Making: A Neglected Skill for 21st Century Learning Bernie Dodge, PhD San Diego State University

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