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Volcanoes

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  • 1. Why Does a Volcano Erupt?• What would happen if you were to stick a pin into a balloon? (it would burst)• Why does it explode?• Pressure inside the balloon is suddenly released and the gases escapes rapidly.• This is what happens in a volcano.
  • 2. Volcanoes Ventsform around Lavavents thatrelease magmaonto the Earth’ssurface. Magma chamber
  • 3. Types of Volcanic Eruptions1. Nonexplosive Eruptions have lava flow.1. Explosive Eruptions have lava fountains. •What is Lava? magma that flows onto the Earth’s surface •What is magma? Liquid rock from the mantle
  • 4. What Erupts from a Blocky lava Volcano? Lava can be thick or thin.Pahoehoe Aa Pillow lava
  • 5. What Erupts from a Volcano?Pyroclastic material:• Rock fragments created by eruptions •magma explodes from volcano and solidifies in the air •existing rock is shattered by powerful eruptions Lapilli Volcanic bombsVolcanic blocks Volcanic ash
  • 6. How do volcanoes affect the Earth?Flows and Fallouts• hot ash can flow really quickly •Knock down buildings •Dam rivers (flooding/drought) •Kill crops and livestockClimatic Changes •Ash & Gases can block sunlight •Drop average global temperature noticeably
  • 7. Types of Volcanoes1. Shield volcano 2. Cinder cone volcano 3. Composite (Stratavolcano) volcano
  • 8. Where do volcanoes occur?•Divergent Plate Boundaries•Subduction Zones
  • 9. What causes volcanoes?The Formation of Magma• Mantle rock melts when thetemperature increasesor the pressure decreases.
  • 10. Where do Volcanoes Form? •Tectonic Plate Boundaries ~75% world’s active volcanoes in Ring of Fire
  • 11. What Causes Volcanoes?•Hot Spots: areas of persistent volcanic activity•Originate at unusually hot areas of the mantle-core boundary.•Plumes of magma rise and poke through thecrust forming volcanoes
  • 12. How do volcanologists predict eruptions?• Measuring Small Quakes – Before eruption, increase in number & intensity• Measuring Slope – Bulges may form with magma (tiltmeter)• Measuring Volcanic Gases – Outflow of volcanic gases • Sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide• Measuring Temperature from Orbit – Measure changes in temperature over time
  • 13. You should not be a • You don’t like Volcanologist if…. hiking, backbacking, rockclimbing, etc. • You are not interested in experiencing extreme temperatures and heights. • If you don’t like to travel to incredible places and see breathtaking views of the world.