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Bioterrorism
 

Bioterrorism

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Warning signs and potential threats of bioterrorism

Warning signs and potential threats of bioterrorism

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    Bioterrorism Bioterrorism Presentation Transcript

    • BIOTERRORISM George Anne Thibodeau, M.S., CIC
    • BIOTERRORISM
      • The use of biological agents, such as pathogenic organisms or agricultural pests, for terrorist purposes.
    • INDICATORS OF BIOTERRORISM
      • An unusual geographic cluster of illnesses
      • An unusual age distribution for common diseases
      • Appearance of previously rare diseases
    • MOST LIKELY AGENTS
      • Anthrax
      • Smallpox
      • Pneumonic plague
      • Botulism
    • ANTHRAX
      • Bacterial infection
      • Causative agent Bacillus anthracis
        • Aerobic
        • Gram positive
        • Rod-shaped
        • Non-motile
        • Spore forming
    • ANTHRAX
      • Infection of herbivores
      • Human infections follows contact with
        • infected animals
        • contaminated animal products
        • intentional release of spores
      • Not transmitted from person-to-person
    • 3 FORMS OF ANTHRAX
      • Cutaneous
      • Inhalation
      • Gastrointestinal
    • CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX
      • 95% OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ANTHRAX
      • Incubation period of 2 - 12 days
      • Causes painless, black ulcer where spores entered a break in the skin
      • 20% fatality rate if untreated
    •  
    • GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX
      • Rare form of disease
      • Follows consumption of contaminated meat or other foods containing spores
      • Nausea, loss of appetite, vomiting, fever followed by abdominal pain,vomiting of blood, severe diarrhea
      • 25 - 60% fatality rate
    • INHALATION ANTHRAX
      • 8000 - 12,000 spores must be inhaled
      • 1st stage: fever, muscle aches, chills, cough
      • 2nd stage: difficulty breathing, shock, meningitis
      • Almost 100% fatality rate if not treated during 1st stage
    • INCIDENCE OF NATURALLY OCCURRING ANTHRAX
      • 224 cases of cutaneous anthrax in U.S. between 1944 and 1994
      • 18 cases of inhalation anthrax in U.S. between 1900 and 1978
      • No cases of gastrointestinal cases reported in U.S.
    • WHAT MAKES ANTHRAX A GOOD BIOTERRORISM WEAPON
      • Highly lethal with 100 million lethal doses per gram of anthrax material
      • Silent, invisible killer
      • Inhalation anthrax is virtually 100% fatal
      • Low production cost
      • Easy to produce in large quantities
      • Extremely stable
      • Currently we have limited detection capabilities
    • PRODUCTION OF WEAPONS-GRADE ANTHRAX
      • Obtain virulent strain of Bacillus anthracis
      • Grow organism in large quantities in liquid form
      • Force bacterium to produce spores
      • Dry and suspend in powder
      • Deliver by aerosol
    • ANTHRAX TREATMENT
      • Cipro: 2 tablets for 60 days ($500)
      • Doxycycline: 2 tablets for 60 days ($30)
      • Amoxicillin: 3 tablets for 60 days ($40)
    • ANTHRAX VACCINE
      • 6 - dose series
      • Annual booster
      • Currently produced by one manufacturer
      • Administered to U.S. Armed Forces
      • Post-exposure vaccination recommended after large-scale exposure (if available)
    • CDC’S GUIDELINES ON HANDLING ANTHRAX THREATS
      • DO NOT PANIC
      • Package marked with threats or “Anthrax”
        • DO NOT OPEN
        • Do not shake or empty
        • Place in plastic bag or closable container
        • Leave room and secure area
        • Wash hands
        • Call 911
    • ANTHRAX THREAT
      • Package or letter opened containing powdery substance
        • Cover contents with trash container, paper, clothing
        • Leave room and secure area
        • Wash hands
        • Call 911
        • Remove contaminated clothing and place in plastic bag or closable container
        • Shower with soap and water
    • ANTHRAX THREAT
      • Possible introduction into ventilation system
        • Turn off fans or ventilation units
        • Leave area immediately
        • Close door and secure area
        • Call 911
        • Shut down air handling system
    •  
    • SMALLPOX
      • Last case in U.S. occurred in 1949
      • Vaccinations in U.S. discontinued in 1980
      • Last case in world occurred in 1977 in Somalia
      • Only known reserves of virus are in the U.S. and Russia
    • SMALLPOX
      • Viral infection
      • Transmitted by inhalation of air droplets
      • Can be transmitted person-to-person
      • Incubation period 12 - 14 days
      • Fever, chills, headache, vesicles
      • Fatality rate 20 - 50%
      • No treatment available
      • 1 person can infect 10 - 20 people
      • U.S. currently has 6 - 7 million doses of vaccine
      • In process of producing 40 million doses
    • PLAGUE
      • Bacterial infection
      • Occurs naturally in southwestern U.S.
      • Pneumonic plague incubation period 2 - 3 days
      • Transmitted person-to-person
      • High fever, chills, headache, pneumonia
      • Fatality rate 100% if untreated, 5 - 20% with treatment
      • Treatment with tetracycline or gentamicin
      • Vaccine: 5 doses over 2 years, annual boosters
    • BOTULISM
      • Bacterial toxin
      • Inhalation botulism symptoms develop in 1 -3 days
      • Symptoms include blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle paralysis, respiratory failure
      • Difficult to diagnose
      • Fatality rate 60% if untreated
      • Anti-toxin available for treatment
      • Vaccine: 3 doses over 3 month period, annual booster
    • Delta Medical Center of Memphis