2. The Day the Universe Changed Humans are constantly seeking answers to the never ending list of questions they have. With every answer they find, another question forms. With every new answer or discovery, their perception of life and the universe change. For example, Galileo’s discovery that the Earth revolves around the sun and not nice versa completely altered the way people viewed the universe.
3. The Day the Universe Changed Humans put so much stock in their beliefs that they will fight to the death to defend them. History is riddled with examples of this. Even to this day we continue to fight for our beliefs.
4. The Journey of Man Everyone in the world is related to each other. The San tribe is the oldest tribe in the world. Some of the ancestors of the San tribe eventually left Africa to journey out to the rest of the world. Humans went from Africa to Australia to India to China then on to the rest of the world. Humans physical features began to change based on the environment they settled in. When they went to Europe their skin became light in color because it was not as hot and it did not need to produce so much melanin.
5. The Journey of Man Spencer Wells tracked the journey of man through a genetic marker only found in the blood of men. Spencer Wells found the specific genetic marker in men through out Europe, Russia, North America, South America, etc.
6. Catastrophe! During the fifth century there was a catastrophic event that led to dramatic climate change. Through a large number of research done, scientists have deduced that the cause of the climate change was an enormous volcanic eruption. The volcano that is the most likely culprit is Krakatoa which lies between the islands of Java and Sumatra.
7. Catastrophe! The three main scientific methods used to deduce the source of the climate change were tree ring dating, studying ice cores from the polar ice caps, and carbon dating.
8. Catastrophe! This catastrophic event snowballed into a very devastating time for human kind. The eruption threw a dense veil of dust, ash or acid into the atmosphere which blanketed out most of the sun. This caused temperatures to drop which in turn led to failure in agriculture. The failure in agriculture led to starvation and social unrest. The cold temperatures also allowed the rat population to grow and in turn allowed the bacteria of the plague to spread. The initial event caused a domino effect and the sum of all of the resulting events played a hand in devastating and/or ending many civilizations through out the world.
9. Guns, Germs, & Steel Diamond theorizes that Europeans did not thrive above all others because of superior intelligence or genetics but because of better opportunities. The plants and animals in their environment were much better suited for survival. They had access to barley, two kinds of wheat, and flax for textiles. They also had access to sheep, goats, and cattle for meat, leather, glue, and wool.
10. Guns, Germs, & Steel Their grains were much easier to keep for longer periods of time which led to food surpluses, which led to population growth. Their population growth led to larger work forces. Because of the larger work forces, there were more people to branch out from farming and hunting to other occupations such as crafting and scribing. These new occupations resulted in an accelerated economy and more technological advances Their advantages in technology allowed them to defeat other civilizations with very little effort.
11. Guns, Germs, & Steel Living in such close proximity to each other and their domesticated animals caused diseases to spread through out Europe. Over time Europeans developed immunities to these diseases so that they no longer posed as much of a threat. When Europeans traveled they brought these bacteria and pathogens with them to places that did not have their immunities. These European diseases decimated man indigenous populations leaving them vulnerable to occupation from the Europeans.