How To Lecture

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graduate TA workshop on How to Lecture

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How To Lecture

  1. 1. How To Lecture <ul><li>Dr. Bryan Carter </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor </li></ul><ul><li>Department of English and Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>AIM - bcrx7 </li></ul><ul><li>MSN - bc69@graffiti (not for email) </li></ul><ul><li>Yahoo - hannibal697 </li></ul><ul><li>ICQ - 152347003 </li></ul><ul><li>Skype - bcmini753 </li></ul><ul><li>Second Life - Bryan Mnemonic </li></ul>
  2. 2. What Exactly “is” a Lecture? <ul><li>One of the many teaching processes </li></ul><ul><li>Began with “literal reading of important passages of text by the master” </li></ul><ul><li>Followed by the masterʻs interpretation of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently a one-way process unaccompanied by discussion, questioning or immediate practice </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why Do We Lecture? <ul><li>I teach as I was taught... </li></ul><ul><li>To communicate pivotal content material </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity to emphasize important ideas </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity to present the most up-to-date information </li></ul><ul><li>An opportunity to present a synthesis of diverse and related information from a variety of sources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a springboard for development of further understanding </li></ul><ul><li>places a “human” face to the discipline </li></ul>
  4. 4. Benefits of the Lecture <ul><li>Opportunity to further explore the discipline </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to develop articles for publication </li></ul><ul><li>The chance to impart your knowledge to students </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to perform, as many good lectures are also good performances </li></ul>
  5. 5. Characteristics of an Effective Lecture <ul><li>Educator-student interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Two-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Educator-student questions </li></ul><ul><li>Shared responsibility for active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Small group, problem-solving activities </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of supporting media </li></ul>
  6. 6. Characteristics of the Ineffective Lecture <ul><li>100% educator talk, limited or no interaction </li></ul><ul><li>One-way communication </li></ul><ul><li>Few if any questions (educator or student) </li></ul><ul><li>Student depends on educator for all information </li></ul><ul><li>No student activities </li></ul>
  7. 7. When is it Appropriate to Lecture? <ul><li>Disseminating information quickly to a large audience </li></ul><ul><li>Presenting new information before using other media or activities </li></ul><ul><li>Providing an overview of a topic </li></ul><ul><li>Arousing interest in a topic </li></ul>
  8. 8. When is it Not Appropriate to Lecture? <ul><li>When presenting complex, detailed or abstract information </li></ul><ul><li>Dealing with information concerning feelings and attitutes </li></ul><ul><li>Training in psychomotor (hands-on) skills </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching high-level cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from : Renner 1993; Ruyle 1995. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Planning Interactive Lectures <ul><li>Establish a Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the Logistics </li></ul><ul><li>Plan a Variety of Approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Lecture Notes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Components of a Good Lecture <ul><li>Opening Summary </li></ul><ul><li>Present Key Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Offer Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Use Analogies </li></ul><ul><li>Use Visual Backups </li></ul><ul><li>Three Main Parts: Intro, Body, Summary </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tips For Creating an Effective Introduction <ul><li>Review lecture objective(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a rhetorical question </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for a show of hands in response to a general question </li></ul><ul><li>Ask a series of questions related to the lecture topic </li></ul><ul><li>Use an interesting or famous quotation </li></ul>
  12. 12. Effective Introductions Cont... <ul><li>Relate the topic to previously covered content </li></ul><ul><li>Use multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Make a provocative statement to encourage discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Give a demonstration </li></ul><ul><li>Use game or role play </li></ul><ul><li>Share Personal Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Sullivan and Wircenski 1996. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Whatʻs in a Good Body <ul><li>The core of the information </li></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming, discussions, problem-solving activities, case studies, games, etc... </li></ul><ul><li>Make it as interactive as possible </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Summary <ul><li>Brief and to the point </li></ul><ul><li>Draw together critical information </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for questions from students </li></ul><ul><li>Ask students questions </li></ul>
  15. 15. How Important are Lecture Notes? <ul><li>Serve as a script of sorts </li></ul><ul><li>Cover main points </li></ul><ul><li>Key words, phrases, reminders </li></ul><ul><li>Use outline format, not a text </li></ul><ul><li>They help you relax </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Sullivan and Wircenski 1996. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Presentation Counts <ul><li>Use your notes </li></ul><ul><li>Capture attention immediately </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate on a personal level </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact </li></ul>
  17. 17. Presentation Cont... <ul><li>Exhibit enthusiasm </li></ul><ul><li>Project your voice, speak clearly and slowly - Pause </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid slang, fillers and repetitive movements/motions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions </li></ul><ul><li>Positive use of humor </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth transitions between topics </li></ul>
  18. 18. Lecturing in Other Environments: Clear Communication is the Key <ul><li>Presentations, Lecturing, what’s the difference? </li></ul><ul><li>Chat Rooms/Blackboard’s Lecture Hall </li></ul><ul><li>Videoconferencing </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP) - Skype, etc... </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Environments </li></ul>
  19. 19. References <ul><li>http://online.fsu.edu/learningresources/handbook/instructionatfsu/PDF-Chptr7.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flinders.edu.au/teach/teach/lecturing.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsllc.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cat.ilstu.edu/teaching_tips/lectures.shtml </li></ul><ul><li>http://cte.umdnj.edu/traditional_teaching/traditional_lecture.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.gmu.edu/facstaff/part-time/strategy.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.oberlin.edu/cot/lecture.htm </li></ul>

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