The Flooding in Thailand: Lessons Learned When Preparing your Organizations for a Catastrophic Event


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Bhakorn Vanuptikul BCCE Executive Vice President, Bangkok Bank, Thailand

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The Flooding in Thailand: Lessons Learned When Preparing your Organizations for a Catastrophic Event

  1. 1. 2011 Flooding in Thailand Lessons Learned Bhakorn Vanuptikul 6 March 2012 6 MARCH 2012 1
  2. 2. Agenda• Damages Done• Contributing Factors• Crisis Management & BCP: Lessons Learned• Conclusions 6 MARCH 2012 2
  3. 3. From Global Perspective• The World Bank ranked the 2011 Floods of Thailand as the fourth costliest disaster in the history, after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami in Japan, 1995 Kobe earth quake and 2005 Hurricane Katrina.• The Flood also interrupted global supply chains of automobile and electronics industries in Japan and Europe. 6 MARCH 2012 3
  4. 4. Damages Done• Financial Impacts: – US$ 45 Billions in damages and losses to properties, industrial plants, goods and services.• Impacts to Population: – 5 Million Peoples or 1.9 Million Households were effected. – 728 deaths, mostly from drowning or electrocution. 6 MARCH 2012 4
  5. 5. Damages Done• Banking Sector: – 451 branches of banks were closed. – 4,942 ATMs were damaged and more were unserviceable for some time.• Industrial & Business Impacts: – 7 Industrial Estates. – Over 1,000 Factories including major manufacturers such as Sony, Canon, Nikon, Honda with long term impacts on exports. – 1,055 New Cars plus over 25,000 cars and trucks. – 1 Million workers lost their jobs temporary or permanently. 6 MARCH 2012 5
  6. 6. Magnitude of the Flood• 16 Billion Cubic Meters of Water drained to the Gulf Of Thailand over a period of 3 month• This water can cover up to 16,000 square kilometers at 1 meter high. 6 MARCH 2012 6
  7. 7. Geographical extent of the flood 6 MARCH 2012 7
  8. 8. Water was everywhere 6 MARCH 2012 8
  9. 9. From World Heritage Monuments 250 Historical sites were damaged 6 MARCH 2012 9
  10. 10. To Industrial Estates 7 Industrial Estates 838 Factories 1,055 New Cars 1 Million workers lost their jobs temporary or permanently 6 MARCH 2012 10
  11. 11. Residentials 6 MARCH 2012 11
  12. 12. Transportations Don Muang Airport and Head Office of Royal Thai Airforce were fully under water for over a month 6 MARCH 2012 12
  13. 13. Transportations 6 MARCH 2012 13
  14. 14. But people was resourceful 6 MARCH 2012 14
  15. 15. Flooded areas inBangkokEvacuation AreasSpecial Alert AreasHigh Alert Areas 6 MARCH 2012 15
  16. 16. Contributing Factors• Climate and Topography• Global Warming• Out of control Development• Water Management• Crisis Management 6 MARCH 2012 16
  17. 17. Climate and Topography• Tropical to Sub-tropical Climate with mean annual rain fall of 1,217.8 mm in the North and 1,242.6 mm in the Central of Thailand.• Central flood plain with slope of 1:10,000 (1 meter drop in 10 kilometers of incline.Effects:• Run off from the North and Central Plains goes through Bangkok.• Prolong flood up to 2-3 months in low lying areas through out the Central Plain. 6 MARCH 2012 17
  18. 18. Global Warming• Glacial and Ice Caps Melt down contribute to more humidity in the atmosphere.• Climate Changes cause more severe storms and rain falls.Effects:• In 2011, annual rain fall in Thailand is 1,688.7 mm or 39% above average in the North and 1514.4 mm or 22% above average in the Central of Thailand. 2011 had highest rain fall in 61 years of records.• 4 Tropical Storms: Nock-Ten, Haima, Nesat, Haitang subsequently hit Thailand in July through September contributed to flash floods in many areas and caused run off from over capacity dams in the North and North East of Thailand. 6 MARCH 2012 18
  19. 19. Out of Control Development• Prior to the Reign of King Rama 4 (1851-1868), most of the Thais knew how to live with nature: – They lived on barges or houses with high stilts that allowed co-existent with seasonal floods. – Most of transportation route were rivers and canals.• Western Expansionism forded King Rama 4 to embrace Western Innovation and Modernization. First modern road was built during his reign.• Modernization and urbanization over 150 years disregarded water ways as transportation, many canals were reclaimed to build more roads. Flood plains were used for agricultures, commercial, housing and industrial estates.Effects:• Development areas and roads block water run off and cause flooding. 6 MARCH 2012 19
  20. 20. Water Management• Several large dams are used for electricity generation, irrigation and flood control.• Reservoirs, canals and rivers are uses for irrigation and flood control.• These mechanisms are under several agencies and are managed for different objectives.• Water management in 2011 was political driven, to keep flood from constituents in each province.Effects:• Water was retained too much early in the rainy season and all major dams were at full capacity by the time 4 tropical storms hit Thailand in early July to September causing the worst flood in 60 years. 6 MARCH 2012 20
  21. 21. Water ManagementWater Volume at King Bhumipol Dam in 2011, 2010 6 MARCH 2012 21
  22. 22. Crisis Management by the Government• Crisis Management is driven by Political Agenda.• Head of Flood Relief Operation Center (FROC) had no knowledge of flood control and emergency operation.• FROC had no water expert on the team until late in the crisis.• FROC focused on flood relief and not on flood control and prevention.• FROC provided no information on the flood situation and let local governments handled emergency operation without coordination.Effects:• Conflicts in crisis management.• Incoherent effort in flood control and flood relieves.• Mistakes in flood control operations.• Incomprehensible information of the situation to the public caused panics.• Fighting between communities. 6 MARCH 2012 22
  23. 23. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 1• Scenarios study to understand the development of the Disaster. – This is a regional disaster that is: • Slow to take place but would last more than a month. • Not all your facilities will face the disaster at the same time so you will have to deal with them at different stages of the crisis. Set up teams to deal with specific tasks. • You have time to prepare but you would have to fight for the limited resources because everyone wants to do the same. 6 MARCH 2012 23
  24. 24. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 2Anticipate the potential impacts to: Transportations  Public Water • Impact to your staff, • Impact to ability to cool the Data logistics, other services. Center, life support for staff. Electricity  Health cares system • Possible power outage • Impact to your staff and their and duration. families, possible pandemic diseases after the flood. Communications  Food supply chains. • Impact to your work • Impact to your staff and their procedures, transactions. families during the flood. 6 MARCH 2012 24
  25. 25. How Bad It could be for BangkokBangkok uses dykes and pumps to control flood which caused byrun off from the North and Central plains, by sea water surging orby heavy rain fall within the city. 6 MARCH 2012 25
  26. 26. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 3• Monitor the situation and information closely: – There were so many sources of information, sort out which ones are reliable and relevant. – Social networks could be useful and more up to date in this kind of disaster – Information may be neither complete or accurate, try to assess the situation yourself. – Use these information to formulate what will impact you, not only your operation, your business volume, but also your customers’ operations. 6 MARCH 2012 26
  27. 27. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 4• Look after your stake holders: – Staff : • Put their welfare as your priority. Allow them to take time off to take care of their houses, their families. • Transportation for staff – Customers : • Provide alternative channel for services • Flexible ways to identify your customers • Match their other needs (no fee for inter-bank transactions) – Communities • Support the communities around your premises. (Bangkok Bank provided over 40,000 disaster relief packages.) 6 MARCH 2012 27
  28. 28. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 5• Most components of your BCP would work. But you have to focus on some new impacts and new circumstances. – Impact on your staff availability • More alternate of key staff who live in different area • Foods and beds for BCP staff around backup sites – Impact on your facilities • Power and water supplies • Communications • Establish backup sites outside of the disaster area • Stock up your critical supplies or pre-arrange for them – Impact on your work loads – Impact on your logistics 6 MARCH 2012 28
  29. 29. Crisis Management & BCP Lessons Learned 6• Protect your premises from threat of flooding. – Understand your risk and your vulnerability • Evaluate each facilities to see if protection from the flood is possible, if it will be effective • Reduce potential damage if possible – Will your facilities cause impact to the surrounding communities in case of flood? • Check inventory of materials and fuels for any threat • Work with authorities if you need external assessment or support 6 MARCH 2012 29
  30. 30. Conclusions• Disaster is dynamic, follow it closely but most importantly, anticipate the potential impacts.• Focus on how to reduce these impacts.• Re-assess your plan, find vulnerabilities that may be associated with this type of disaster but be flexible.• Don’t rely on outside help, they are all busy.• If you remember your staff, your customers in time of need, they will always remember you. 6 MARCH 2012 30
  31. 31. Thank you Bhakorn 6 MARCH 2012 31