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Stratification

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  • Top fifth–84% (top 1% gets 35%)Second fifth – 11%Third – 4%Fourth – 0.2%Bottom – 0.1%
  • http://www.stateofworkingamerica.org/pages/interactive%23/?start=1917&end=1918
  • Transcript

    • 1. Social Differentiation & Stratification
    • 2. The American Dream
    • 3. The American RealityO Inequality – unequal access to scares goods and resourcesO Social differentiation – how people vary according to social characteristics O Different than inequality
    • 4. StratificationO Social stratification – ranking of people according to their wealth, power or prestigeO The more complex a society, the wider the divisions of labor and variations in social positions
    • 5. StratificationO Durkheim O Mechanical vs. organic solidarity O Increased division of labor did NOT in fact produce great solidarity in our society
    • 6. StratificationO Systems of stratification O Status is acquired through ascription or achievement (usually a combination of both)
    • 7. Systems of Stratification Open Systems Closed SystemsO Individual O Status is accomplishments determined at birth are encouraged and O Social mobility is social mobility based on a person’s rewarded with social position advancements O IndividualO Equality is based on achievement is not achievement rewarded
    • 8. Systems of StratificationO Caste system O A person’s social status is ascribed at birth O Worth is judged on the basis of religious or traditional beliefs about the person or the person’s family
    • 9. O India
    • 10. Systems of StratificationO Estate system O Law and memberships through inheritance determine the mobility of a person O Status is ascribed O Social mobility is limited, but possible
    • 11. Systems of StratificationO Europe during the Middle Ages O First estate – nobility, wealthy families, powerful landowners O Second estate – clergy O Third estate – serfs, commoners, laborers
    • 12. Systems of StratificationO Slave system O Belief in the ownership of humans for labor O Labor seen as a means to pay off a debt O Indentured servitude
    • 13. Systems of StratificationO Class system O Social status is defined in terms of wealth and income O Technically an open system O No legal definitions of class O Assumes social mobility
    • 14. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Max Weber O Class O Status O Party (power)
    • 15. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Social class O Ranking generally based on one’s wealth O Wealth is gained through income and occupation, power derived from wealth, and “life chances” O Opportunities people have to improve their social class status O Occupations, housing and lifestyle, education, medical care, criminal justice, etc.
    • 16. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Social status O Amount of honor and prestige a person receives from others in the community O Can be acquired by birth, living in an expensive neighborhood, attending a prestigious school, joining high status groups, buying expensive goods, holding respected positions, etc.
    • 17. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Party (power) O Having authority and respect usually within an organization in which decisions are made to reach the group’s goals
    • 18. Dimensions of a Class SystemO Socioeconomic status O Considers income, education, and occupation when assessing a person’s statusO How do you classify people who have “status inconsistency”?
    • 19. Social Class in the USO Upper class O Those who have considerable wealth O Wealth includes personal property, liquid assets, real estate, stocks, bonds and other owned assets O “Old money” vs. “new money”
    • 20. Social Class in the USO Middle class O 53% of Americans self-identify as middle class
    • 21. Pew InstituteSector % of Income Education Marital Demographics Populatio Status nTop 39% $50-100k Most likely to 70% married While males(Positive have college ages 30-49outlook) degreeSatisfied 25% $30-49k Less than Unmarried White women(Positive college ages 18-29 &outlook) education over 65Anxious 23% $$50-99k Some college Married White ages 30-(Negative 49outlook)Strugglin 13% $20k or High school or Unmarried Mostly white,g less less but most(Mostly minorities in thisnegative group
    • 22. Social Class in the USO Lower class O Usually have the least amount of education and most difficulty with employment O Self-identification is very unlikely O Women, children and minorities are vastly overrepresented
    • 23. Social Class in the USO Poverty O Having fewer resources than necessary to meet the basic necessities of life O Poverty index O US Census Bureau
    • 24. Social Class in the USO Poverty rate in 2010 – 15.1%, up from 14.3% in 2009, up from 12.5% in 2007 O Highest rate since 1993O In 2010, 46.2 million people were in poverty O Largest number in the history of the censusO Poverty – Whites (9.4% to 9.9%), Asians (12.1%), Hispanics (25.3% to 26.6%), Blacks (25.8% to 27.4%) O Children (20.7% to 22%), People 18-64 (12.9% 13.7%)
    • 25. Social Class in the USO 2007 - $21,203 for a family of four – 12.5%O 2005 - $19,874 for a family of four – 12.6%O Only 5% of the poor could be working but are notO In 2007 28.3% of female-headed households were living in poverty
    • 26. Social Class in the USO Class consciousness O Awareness that different classes exist in society and that people’s fates are tied to the fate of their whole class O Upper class is the most likely in the US to have class consciousness
    • 27. Social Class in the USO Income inequalities
    • 28. Social Class in the US
    • 29. Social Class in the US
    • 30. Social Class in the USO Social mobility in the US O Upward and downward mobility O Split labor market O Great obstacles for women, the poor and minorities
    • 31. Theories of StratificationO Structural Functionalism O Society is self-regulating and self- maintaining O Stratification must serve a function O People with strong leadership skills are needed to run complex societies O Society encourages these leaders by rewarding them with wealth and status O People who make more worthwhile contributions to the functioning of society are rewarded better
    • 32. Theories of StratificationO Conflict theory O Inequality develops as a result of people’s lust for power O Groups compete with one another for scare resources that are a source of power O These resources are not rewards, but are acquired through inheritance, coercion and exploitation
    • 33. Theories of StratificationO Conflict theory O Once a group has power, it must legitimate its power by appealing to the values of the masses O False consciousness – masses are influenced by elite ideology and show a lack of awareness of their own interests and an acceptance of elite rule