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  1. 1. Socialization<br />
  2. 2. Socialization<br />The lifelong process through which people are prepared to participate in society<br />By studying how people learn the rules of society, we hope to better understand why people think and act as they do<br />
  3. 3. Nature-Nurture Debate<br />Controversy over the extent to which behavior results from predetermined biological characteristics or from socialization<br />
  4. 4. Nature-Nurture Debate<br />Sociology<br />Study of biological and genetic determinants of behavior<br />Instincts – patterns of reflexes that occur in animals<br />No powerful, fixed drives or instincts have been discovered in humans<br />
  5. 5. Nature-Nurture Debate<br />Money (1980)<br />Environmental factors become part of our biology when we perceive them<br />When information enters our minds, it is translated into a biochemical form<br />Information stored in the brain can cause physiological changes in the body<br />
  6. 6. Social Isolation<br />Infants and social interaction<br />
  7. 7. Social Isolation<br />Feral children<br />Wild boy of Aveyron, France 1800<br />TraianCaldarar, Romania 2002<br />
  8. 8. Social Isolation<br />Children in institutions<br />
  9. 9. Social Isolation<br />Abused and neglected children<br />Genie<br />
  10. 10. Development of Self<br />Mead<br />The unique feature of the human mind is its capacity to use symbols<br />Human development proceeds from this ability<br />A self develops through language and interaction<br />Symbolic interaction<br />
  11. 11. Development of Self<br />“The self is something which has a development; it is not initially there, at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity, that is, develops in the given individual as a result of his relations to that process as a whole and to other individuals within that process.”<br />
  12. 12. Development of Self<br />Role taking – process of figuring out how others will act<br />Play – three stages through which the self emerges<br />
  13. 13. Development of Self<br />Preparatory stage – children are only capable of imitation<br />Play stage – children begin to take on the role of others significant in their lives<br />Game stage – children are capable of understanding not only one role, but the roles of several individuals simultaneously<br />
  14. 14. Development of Self<br />Mead<br />Generalized other – the organized community or social group that provides reference for one’s behavior<br />I & Me<br />I – not self conscious<br />Me – part of the self that see the self as object; concerned with society’s expectations<br />
  15. 15. Development of Self<br />Cooley<br />Looking-glass self – the self develops in a process that requires reference to other people<br />How we think our behavior appears to others<br />How we think others judge our behaviors<br />How we feel about their judgments<br />When we refer to ourselves we are usually referring to our looking-glass selves<br />Merton’s self-fulfilling prophecy<br />
  16. 16. Development of Self<br />Goffman<br />Presentation of self – the way we present ourselves gives other people clues about the type of interaction we expect<br />
  17. 17. Development of Self<br />Dramaturgical approach<br />Backstage and onstage<br />Actors and audience<br />
  18. 18. Development of Self<br />Goffman<br />Maintaining the self<br />Excuses & disclaimers<br />We expect others to maintain their roles, when this does not happen we react emotionally<br />Groups agree to uphold roles, failure to do so can result in an emotional reaction<br />
  19. 19. Major Agents of Socialization<br />Family<br />School<br />Peer groups<br />Religion<br />Mass media<br />
  20. 20. Socialization as Adults<br />“Training” for new roles<br />Resocialization<br />Necessitated by a major break in a person’s customary life<br />