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Socialization

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Transcript

  • 1. Socialization
  • 2. Socialization
    The lifelong process through which people are prepared to participate in society
    By studying how people learn the rules of society, we hope to better understand why people think and act as they do
  • 3. Nature-Nurture Debate
    Controversy over the extent to which behavior results from predetermined biological characteristics or from socialization
  • 4. Nature-Nurture Debate
    Sociology
    Study of biological and genetic determinants of behavior
    Instincts – patterns of reflexes that occur in animals
    No powerful, fixed drives or instincts have been discovered in humans
  • 5. Nature-Nurture Debate
    Money (1980)
    Environmental factors become part of our biology when we perceive them
    When information enters our minds, it is translated into a biochemical form
    Information stored in the brain can cause physiological changes in the body
  • 6. Social Isolation
    Infants and social interaction
  • 7. Social Isolation
    Feral children
    Wild boy of Aveyron, France 1800
    TraianCaldarar, Romania 2002
  • 8. Social Isolation
    Children in institutions
  • 9. Social Isolation
    Abused and neglected children
    Genie
  • 10. Development of Self
    Mead
    The unique feature of the human mind is its capacity to use symbols
    Human development proceeds from this ability
    A self develops through language and interaction
    Symbolic interaction
  • 11. Development of Self
    “The self is something which has a development; it is not initially there, at birth, but arises in the process of social experience and activity, that is, develops in the given individual as a result of his relations to that process as a whole and to other individuals within that process.”
  • 12. Development of Self
    Role taking – process of figuring out how others will act
    Play – three stages through which the self emerges
  • 13. Development of Self
    Preparatory stage – children are only capable of imitation
    Play stage – children begin to take on the role of others significant in their lives
    Game stage – children are capable of understanding not only one role, but the roles of several individuals simultaneously
  • 14. Development of Self
    Mead
    Generalized other – the organized community or social group that provides reference for one’s behavior
    I & Me
    I – not self conscious
    Me – part of the self that see the self as object; concerned with society’s expectations
  • 15. Development of Self
    Cooley
    Looking-glass self – the self develops in a process that requires reference to other people
    How we think our behavior appears to others
    How we think others judge our behaviors
    How we feel about their judgments
    When we refer to ourselves we are usually referring to our looking-glass selves
    Merton’s self-fulfilling prophecy
  • 16. Development of Self
    Goffman
    Presentation of self – the way we present ourselves gives other people clues about the type of interaction we expect
  • 17. Development of Self
    Dramaturgical approach
    Backstage and onstage
    Actors and audience
  • 18. Development of Self
    Goffman
    Maintaining the self
    Excuses & disclaimers
    We expect others to maintain their roles, when this does not happen we react emotionally
    Groups agree to uphold roles, failure to do so can result in an emotional reaction
  • 19. Major Agents of Socialization
    Family
    School
    Peer groups
    Religion
    Mass media
  • 20. Socialization as Adults
    “Training” for new roles
    Resocialization
    Necessitated by a major break in a person’s customary life