Race and ethnicity

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  • Puerto Rico 1950s, 1979 almost 50% of women of child-bearing age1980s nearly 65% of Latina women in northeast USLa Operacion


  • 1. Race & Ethnicity
  • 2. Racial GroupsO Racial group O A socially constructed category of people who are distinguished from others by select physical characteristics
  • 3. Biological RaceO Biological race O Phenotypes O Visible anatomical features O Skin color, hair texture, body & facial shape, etc. O Genotypes O Genetics inherited from parents
  • 4. One Drop Rule
  • 5. Social RaceO 2000 US Census
  • 6. EthnicityO Originally referred to national originO Today may also refer to religion, language or regionO Based on cultural traits that reflect national origin, religion & language
  • 7. EthnicityO EthnocentrismO Ethnic enclaves
  • 8. Minority GroupsO Minority group O Refers to a groups access to power and status within a society O Significantly less control or power over their own lives than members of dominant groups O Fewer life chances
  • 9. Minority GroupsO Distinguished from other groups in terms of where the group is situated in society’s social hierarchyO Social status of group is defined by the extent to which the group departs from the norms established by the dominant group O WASPs
  • 10. StereotypesO Exaggerated beliefs usually associated with a group of people and based on race, ethnicity, gender, religion or sexual orientationO Generally begin with a particular belief about an undesirable characteristics of a groupO Often develop out of a fear or when the dominant group feels threatened by a particular group
  • 11. StereotypesO “Kernel of truth”O MediaO Rarely a positive image
  • 12. PrejudiceO An attitude, usually negative, usually based on racial or ethnic characteristicsO Harbored thoughts & beliefs lead to categorical rejection
  • 13. Economic Theories of PrejudiceO Both competition and conflict among groups are inevitable when different groups desire commodities that are in short supplyO Racial prejudice is most present during economic turmoilO Labeling someone as inferior justifies their exploitation
  • 14. Psychological Theories of PrejudiceO Prejudice satisfies psychic needs or compensates for some defect in personalityO ScapegoatingO Projection
  • 15. Frustration-Aggression Theory O Groups who strive repeatedly to achieve their goals and fail repeatedly eventually become frustrated and this leads to seeking an outlet for this frustration through displaced aggression
  • 16. Normative TheoryO Schaeffer 2005O Peers and social influences either encourage tolerance or intolerance toward others
  • 17. Authoritative Personality TheoryO Some people are more inclined to prejudice than others due to differences in personalityO Prejudiced people are characterized by: O Rigidity of outlook O Intolerance O Suggestibility O Dislike for ambiguity O Irrational attitudes
  • 18. DiscriminationO Overt behavior or actionsO Categorical exclusion of members of a specific group from certain rights, opportunities and privilegesO Institutional discrimination O The continuing exclusion or oppression of a group as a result of criteria established by an institution
  • 19. RacismO The belief that one racial group or category is inherently superior to othersO Three components: O Belief that one race is superior to others O Ideology that justifies the subjugation or exploitation of another group O Beliefs are acted
  • 20. Scientific Racism
  • 21. RacismO Institutional racism O Racist ideas and practices are embodied in folkways, mores or legal structures of various institutions
  • 22. IntegrationO Ethnicity becomes insignificant and everyone can freely and fully participate in the social, economic and political mainstream
  • 23. AssimilationO Individuals and groups forsake their own cultural tradition to become part of a different group and tradition
  • 24. AssimilationO Melting pot O Each group contributes a bit of its own culture and absorbs aspects of other cultures O A+B+C=DO Anglo conformity O “Americanization” O A+B+C=A
  • 25. Cultural PluralismO MulticulturalismO A+B+C=A+B+CO “Hyphenated”
  • 26. SegregationO The physical and social separation of groups or categories of peopleO De jure & de facto segregation
  • 27. Mass Expulsion & Genocide
  • 28. Eugenics