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  1. 1. Power
  2. 2. PowerO The measure of the ability to control the environment or entities within the environmentO Thomas Hobbes O Power is man‟s “present means to obtain some future apparent good”O Politics O The study of power
  3. 3. The Types of Legitimate DominationO Domination O “The probability that certain specific commands (or all commands) will be obeyed by a given group of persons”
  4. 4. The Types of Legitimate DominationO “Normally the rule over a considerable number of persons requires a staff, that is, a special group which can normally be trusted to execute the general policy as well as the specific commands” O Bound to obedience to their superior by customs, affectual ties, material interests or ideal motives O Purely material ties results in an unstable situation
  5. 5. The Types of Legitimate Domination O Legitimacy O “Every such system attempts to establish and to cultivate a belief in its legitimacy.”
  6. 6. “The validity of the claims tolegitimacy may be based on:”O Rational grounds (legal authority) O Belief in the legality of rule and the right of the ruler to be in his positionO Traditional grounds (traditional authority) O Belief in the sanctity of traditions and those exercising authority according to themO Charismatic grounds (charismatic authority) O “Resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person.”
  7. 7. Three Types of PowerO Condign power O Based on force O Submission is attained through making alternatives too painfulO Compensatory power O Through the use of various resources O Submission is boughtO Conditioned power O The result of persuasion
  8. 8. Three Sources of PowerO Personality O Comes from the individualO Property O Comes from material resourcesO Organizational O Comes from hierarchy
  9. 9. First DimensionO Focuses on behavior in decision making O Mainly focued on key issues and in blatantly observable situationsO Power is exercised in formal institutionsO Power is measured by the outcomes of decisions
  10. 10. Second DimensionO Decision making, non-decision making and agenda settingO Institutions and informal influencesO Includes influence, inducement, persuasion, authority, coercion and direct forceO Measured by the extent of informal influences
  11. 11. Third DimensionO Shapes preferences via values, norms and ideologiesO Not measurable
  12. 12. Antonio Gramsci - HegemonyO Values of the ruling class become the “common sense” values of us allO Used to explain why a Marxist revolution never happened
  13. 13. HegemonyO Helps to maintain a status quoO Cultural hegemony O Rule is attained through manipulating the culture of a society so that ruling class views become the norm and are accepted as valid ideology beneficial to all members of society
  14. 14. FeminismO Unmarked categories of power O The unmarked category forms the identify mark of the powerful O Unmarked category is the norm, other categories are deviant
  15. 15. The Power EliteO “The powers of ordinary men are circumscribed by the everyday worlds in which they live, yet even in these rounds of job, family, and neighborhood they often seem driven by forces they can neither understand nor govern. „Great changes‟ are beyond their control, but affect their conduct and outlook nonetheless. The very framework of modern society confines them to projects not their own, but from every side, such changes now press upon the men and women of the mass society, who accordingly feel that they are without purpose in an epoch in which they are without power.”
  16. 16. The Power EliteO “They know that they live in a time of big decisions; they know that they are not making any.”
  17. 17. The Power EliteO “The power elite is composed of men whose positions enable them to transcend the ordinary environments of ordinary men and women; they are in positions to make decisions having major consequences.” O Doesn‟t matter if they actually DO make such decisions O “No matter how great their actual power, they tend to be less acutely aware of it than of the resistance of others to its use.”
  18. 18. The Power EliteO “The elite are simply those who have the most of what there is to have, which is generally held to include money, power and prestige – as well as all the ways of life to which these lead. But the elite are not simply those who have the most, for they could not „have the most‟ were it not for their positions in the great institutions. For such institutions are the necessary bases of power, of wealth, and of prestige, and at the same time, the chief means of exercising power, of acquiring and retaining wealth, and of cashing in the higher claims for prestige.”
  19. 19. The Power EliteO Today individuals are not as powerful as institutions, particularly the economic, political and military domainsO “By the powerful we mean, of course, those who are able to realize their will, even if others resist it. No one, accordingly, can be truly powerful unless he has access to the command of major institutions.”
  20. 20. The Power Elite Political
  21. 21. The Power EliteO “The elite…feel themselves to be, and are felt by others to be, the inner circle of „the upper social classes.‟”
  22. 22. Dealing with PowerO Recognize itO Fighting power with power does NOT work in the endO ParodyO Political changeO THINK!