Exam 2 ReviewSocial Movements through Stratification
Collective BehaviorO Macro vs. MicroO Gathers, demonstrations, and riotsO Behaviors within gatherings: milling, common focus, collective locomotion, queuing, collective vocalizationO Behaviors within demonstrations: religious and political rallies, sporting eventsO Behavior within riots: looting
Social MovementsO Inconspicuous beginningsO Four things required: O Preexisting communications network O That is co-optable O Crisis O Organizing effort
CultureO What is culture?O Material vs. non-material cultureO Ethnocentrism, xenocentrism, temporocentrism, culture shockO Symbols, language (Sapir-Whorf), values, norms (prescriptive & proscriptive, folkways, mores & taboos)O High, folk, popular cultureO Subcultures, counterculturesO Ideal vs. real culture
Social StructureO Status (ascribed and achieved) O Master statusO Roles O Prescribed role, role perception, role performance O Role ambiguity, role strain, role conflict, role confusion
Social GroupsO Statistical groups, categorical groups, limited social groups, social groupsO Primary and secondary groupsO Dyad and TriadO In-group and out-group
SocializationO Nature vs. nurtureO Social isolationO Mead: development of self, role taking, play (preparatory, play and game stages), generalized other, I & MeO Cooley: looking-glass selfO Goffman: dramaturgical approach, maintaining selfO Major agents of socializationO Socialization as adults
Social InstitutionsO Society must be self-sufficientO Societal needs and what institutions fill themO Ideal typeO Generally unplanned (routine), inherently conservative, interdependent, bear little resemblance from society to society
Deviance and ControlO Deviance, deviants, conformityO Variations in behaviorO DurkheimO Positive and negative functions of devianceO Internal and external means of controlO Positive and negative, informal and formal sanctionsO Biological, psychoanalytic and sociological theories
Deviance and ControlO Merton’s strain theoryO Conflict theoryO Symbolic interaction: cultural transmission, differential association, social learning theoryO Labeling theory
StratificationO Open vs. closed systemsO Systems of stratification (caste, estate, slave, class)O Weber: Class, status, party (power)O Socioeconomic statusO Upper, middle, lower classesO PovertyO Class consciousnessO Structural functionalist and conflict theory
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