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Deviance and social control
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Deviance and social control Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Deviance & Social Control
  • 2. Deviance
    No culture or society has complete behavioral conformity
    Deviance exists in all societies
  • 3. Deviance
    Deviance – variations from a set of norms or shared social expectations
    Deviants – the people who violate these shared expectations
    Conformity – when people follow the norms of their social group or society
  • 4. Deviance
    Norms rarely state exactly what behaviors are acceptable and which are unacceptable
    Variations in behavior are allowed
    Deviance occurs when someone pushes past the range of acceptable behavior
  • 5. Functions of Deviance
    Durkheim
    Deviance is a normal part of society because it performs certain functions for society
  • 6. Functions of Deviance
    Helps to define the limits of social tolerance
    Shows the extent to which norms can be violated without reaction
    Helps to clarify the boundaries of norms
    Public control of deviants illustrates the limits to the general members of society
  • 7. Functions of Deviance
    Increases solidarity and integration of the group
    Deviance can increase solidarity among groups of deviants
    Non-deviant groups can come together to combat deviance
  • 8. Functions of Deviance
    “Safety valve” for social discontent
    Allows people to escape from conventional norms and rid themselves of frustration without disrupting the whole social system
    Can funnel anger in a different direction
  • 9. Functions of Deviance
    Can indicate defects or inadequacies in the existing social organization
    Can set in motion steps that lead to social change
  • 10. Dysfunctions of Deviance
    Isolated instances of deviance have little effect on system stability
    Widespread, long-term or more extreme norm violations can impair the functioning of groups or of entire systems
  • 11. Dysfunctions of Deviance
    Disrupt the social order
    Disrupt the status quo
    Make social life unpredictable
    Create tension and conflict
  • 12. Dysfunctions of Deviance
    Disrupt the will of others to conform
    Unpunished norm violations decrease the desire of others to conform
    Conformity only happens when
    Other conform as well
    Those who conform are differentiated from those who don’t
    Violators are punished
  • 13. Dysfunctions of Deviance
    Destroy trust
    Social life is partly based on assuming others are honest and trustworthy
    People become more dependent on the legal system when trust is destroyed
    Divert resources into social rehabilitation and control efforts
  • 14. Social Control
    Internal means of control
    People conform to norms because they believe they should, even when no one else is present
    People are socialized to see themselves in a certain way
    External means of control
    Others in the group utilize pressures or sanctions to attempt to control an individual’s behavior
  • 15. Social Control
    Sanctions – rewards or punishments used to encourage proper behavior or discourage deviant behavior
    Positive and negative sanctions
    Formal and informal sanctions
  • 16. The Panopticon
  • 17. Theories Explaining Deviance
    Biological theories of deviance
    Medical model – assumes an unhealthy biological organism
    Weakness or defects produce deviant behavior
    Biological determinism
    Eugenics
    Doesn’t explain why others with the same bio traits don’t become deviant
  • 18.
  • 19. Theories Explaining Deviance
    Psychoanalytic theories of deviance
    Freud – all human behavior is based on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain
    Id (pleasure principle), ego (reality principle), superego (moral principle)
    Conscious – wants, needs, desires; what we are aware of
    Preconscious – brought to the surface by a memory or experience
    Subconscious – repressed memories; biological desires and urges
  • 20. Ego
    Superego
    Id
  • 21. Sociological Theories of Deviance
    Explain deviance by looking at the sociocultural processes and organizational structures
    Still considers acts and actors
    Does not dismiss biological or psychological factors
  • 22. Strain Theory
    Structural functionalist
    Merton’s strain theory
    Deviance arises from the struggle society has between culturally defined goals and the socially approved means by which they are met
    Deviance is the result of a strain between a society’s culture and social structure
  • 23. Strain Theory
  • 24. Conflict Theory
    Societies contain many groups that have different conflicting values
    Strongest group has the power to define the values of the weaker group as deviant
    Powerful exploit the powerless
    Violence and inequality is institutionalized
    Laws are not fair
  • 25. Symbolic Interaction
    Focus on sociocultural learning process through which deviant acts are learned and the conditions under which they are learned
    Emphasize the groups to which people belong and how we learn the norms of those groups
  • 26. Symbolic Interaction
    Cultural transmission theory
    When deviance is a part of a subculture’s cultural pattern, it is transmitted to new members through socialization
    Deviance results not from violated norms, but from conforming to them
  • 27. Symbolic Interaction
    Differential association theory
    Deviance results when individuals have more contact with groups that define deviance favorably than with groups that define it unfavorably
    Contact with actual criminals is not necessary
    Exposure to favorable definitions is enough
  • 28. Symbolic Interaction
    Social learning theory
    Deviant and conforming behaviors are determined by the consequences that follow them
    Instrumental conditions – behavior is acquired through direct conditioning or imitating the modeled behavior of others
    Differential reinforcement – persistent behaviors result from the rewards or punishments following the behavior
  • 29. Labeling Theory
    Some behaviors are labeled “deviant” and being given such a label influences a person’s behavior
    Deviance is the result of human interaction
    Deviance is a relative act – not the result of a specific type of act but rather the consequence of applying a particular label