Deviance and social control


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Deviance and social control

  1. 1. Deviance & Social Control<br />
  2. 2. Deviance<br />No culture or society has complete behavioral conformity<br />Deviance exists in all societies<br />
  3. 3. Deviance<br />Deviance – variations from a set of norms or shared social expectations<br />Deviants – the people who violate these shared expectations<br />Conformity – when people follow the norms of their social group or society<br />
  4. 4. Deviance<br />Norms rarely state exactly what behaviors are acceptable and which are unacceptable<br />Variations in behavior are allowed<br />Deviance occurs when someone pushes past the range of acceptable behavior<br />
  5. 5. Functions of Deviance<br />Durkheim<br />Deviance is a normal part of society because it performs certain functions for society<br />
  6. 6. Functions of Deviance<br />Helps to define the limits of social tolerance<br />Shows the extent to which norms can be violated without reaction<br />Helps to clarify the boundaries of norms<br />Public control of deviants illustrates the limits to the general members of society<br />
  7. 7. Functions of Deviance<br />Increases solidarity and integration of the group<br />Deviance can increase solidarity among groups of deviants<br />Non-deviant groups can come together to combat deviance<br />
  8. 8. Functions of Deviance<br />“Safety valve” for social discontent<br />Allows people to escape from conventional norms and rid themselves of frustration without disrupting the whole social system<br />Can funnel anger in a different direction<br />
  9. 9. Functions of Deviance<br />Can indicate defects or inadequacies in the existing social organization<br />Can set in motion steps that lead to social change<br />
  10. 10. Dysfunctions of Deviance<br />Isolated instances of deviance have little effect on system stability<br />Widespread, long-term or more extreme norm violations can impair the functioning of groups or of entire systems<br />
  11. 11. Dysfunctions of Deviance<br />Disrupt the social order<br />Disrupt the status quo<br />Make social life unpredictable<br />Create tension and conflict<br />
  12. 12. Dysfunctions of Deviance<br />Disrupt the will of others to conform<br />Unpunished norm violations decrease the desire of others to conform<br />Conformity only happens when<br />Other conform as well<br />Those who conform are differentiated from those who don’t<br />Violators are punished<br />
  13. 13. Dysfunctions of Deviance<br />Destroy trust<br />Social life is partly based on assuming others are honest and trustworthy<br />People become more dependent on the legal system when trust is destroyed<br />Divert resources into social rehabilitation and control efforts<br />
  14. 14. Social Control<br />Internal means of control<br />People conform to norms because they believe they should, even when no one else is present<br />People are socialized to see themselves in a certain way<br />External means of control<br />Others in the group utilize pressures or sanctions to attempt to control an individual’s behavior<br />
  15. 15. Social Control<br />Sanctions – rewards or punishments used to encourage proper behavior or discourage deviant behavior<br />Positive and negative sanctions<br />Formal and informal sanctions<br />
  16. 16. The Panopticon<br />
  17. 17. Theories Explaining Deviance<br />Biological theories of deviance<br />Medical model – assumes an unhealthy biological organism<br />Weakness or defects produce deviant behavior<br />Biological determinism<br />Eugenics<br />Doesn’t explain why others with the same bio traits don’t become deviant<br />
  18. 18.
  19. 19. Theories Explaining Deviance<br />Psychoanalytic theories of deviance<br />Freud – all human behavior is based on seeking pleasure and avoiding pain<br />Id (pleasure principle), ego (reality principle), superego (moral principle)<br />Conscious – wants, needs, desires; what we are aware of<br />Preconscious – brought to the surface by a memory or experience<br />Subconscious – repressed memories; biological desires and urges<br />
  20. 20. Ego<br />Superego<br />Id<br />
  21. 21. Sociological Theories of Deviance<br />Explain deviance by looking at the sociocultural processes and organizational structures<br />Still considers acts and actors<br />Does not dismiss biological or psychological factors<br />
  22. 22. Strain Theory<br />Structural functionalist<br />Merton’s strain theory<br />Deviance arises from the struggle society has between culturally defined goals and the socially approved means by which they are met<br />Deviance is the result of a strain between a society’s culture and social structure<br />
  23. 23. Strain Theory<br />
  24. 24. Conflict Theory<br />Societies contain many groups that have different conflicting values<br />Strongest group has the power to define the values of the weaker group as deviant<br />Powerful exploit the powerless<br />Violence and inequality is institutionalized<br />Laws are not fair<br />
  25. 25. Symbolic Interaction<br />Focus on sociocultural learning process through which deviant acts are learned and the conditions under which they are learned<br />Emphasize the groups to which people belong and how we learn the norms of those groups<br />
  26. 26. Symbolic Interaction<br />Cultural transmission theory<br />When deviance is a part of a subculture’s cultural pattern, it is transmitted to new members through socialization<br />Deviance results not from violated norms, but from conforming to them<br />
  27. 27. Symbolic Interaction<br />Differential association theory<br />Deviance results when individuals have more contact with groups that define deviance favorably than with groups that define it unfavorably<br />Contact with actual criminals is not necessary<br />Exposure to favorable definitions is enough<br />
  28. 28. Symbolic Interaction<br />Social learning theory<br />Deviant and conforming behaviors are determined by the consequences that follow them<br />Instrumental conditions – behavior is acquired through direct conditioning or imitating the modeled behavior of others<br />Differential reinforcement – persistent behaviors result from the rewards or punishments following the behavior<br />
  29. 29. Labeling Theory<br />Some behaviors are labeled “deviant” and being given such a label influences a person’s behavior<br />Deviance is the result of human interaction<br />Deviance is a relative act – not the result of a specific type of act but rather the consequence of applying a particular label<br />