Day 1 Medication Aide


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  • Wellness:
    In the United States, facilities are expanding to accommodate all levels of care and all age groups. With longer life expectancy and inventive new ways of saving life at birth and during illness, it is important to remember that the consumer will require and receive various health care treatment approaches, including medication.

    Basic reactions to medications are altered due to disease, drug interaction, nutrition, mental wellness, physical limitations, etc… Sensitivity and resistance to medications and treatments are increasing. Careful observation is necessary in order to promote quality of life and avoid potential life threatening situations.
  • Successful completion of the course will be determined by unit examinations, a state final written examination, demonstration of competency of the skills as documented by the skills check list, and successful completion of the clinical portion of the course, with the written documentation by the RN assigned to supervise the clinical at the worksite.
  • Recognize the role and responsibilities of the medication aide
    Recognize legal classifications and control of medications
    Review general safety measures as they relate to medication administration

    Examine the role of health professionals in preparation, prescription, and administration of medications
    Describe how drugs are supplied and where they are commonly stored
    Give examples of drug resources
    Examine reasons why drugs are given and give an example of a drug given for each reason
    Interpret the assigned list of abbreviations and symbols related to drug administration
    Discuss the three methods of measuring dosages
    Define the assigned list of terms that are used to describe drug interactions
    Describe the various methods for administering nonparenteral medications

    Recognize methods and procedures of safely preparing nonparenteral medications
    List the routes for administration of nonparenteral medications
    Explain how prescriber determines route, dosage, and times of drug administration examine various nonparenteral drug preparations and explain how you would administer each
    List the six rights of drug administration and explain how these six rights assist in safely administering drugs
    Observe and/or discuss and list step by step procedure for preparing nonparenteral medications
    Return the step by step demonstration in the laboratory

    Recognize methods and procedures for safely administering and recording nonparenteral medications
    Describe the procedure for safely giving drugs to residents
    Explain methods of talking with residents about medications and importance of taking medications
    Examine unusual things that can happen in giving the medications and explain what should be done
    Identify methods and information necessary in charting and/or reporting drugs that have been given
    Practice charting medications in the laboratory
    Describe what must be done if an error is made in administer drugs

    Recognize commonly ordered nonparenteral medications and classify these into drug families according to action, side effects, and nursing care precautions
    Demonstrate the ability to safely administer nonparenteral drugs in the clinical setting.
  • Chapter 1, p. 4

    Certification and Registry Requirements (each state has own requirements)

    Must successfully complete a state-approved training program which includes classroom training, demonstration required skills, and clinical experience
    Passing a competency evaluation-written test and skill test
    Completing an application form
    Paying required application fees
    Submitting fingerprint information
    REMEMBER: certification can be denied for any reason (refer to page 3 of textbook).
  • Chapter 1, p. 7

    Administer medications under the supervision of licensed nurse (unless otherwise allowed by law)

  • Chapter 1, p. 2
  • Chapter 3, p.3
  • Chapter 1, p. 4
  • Chapter 1, p. 7
  • Chapter 2, p. 10
    CMAs and CNAs cannot delegate tasks.
  • Chapter 2, p. 9-14
  • Chapter 2, p. 10-12
  • Chapter 2, p. 12
  • Chapter 2, p. 13
  • Chapter 3, p. 15-25
    Chapter 3, p. 16 Box 3-1 code of conduct for nursing assistive personnel

    Resident’s rights:
    Right to refuse treatment
    Right to information
    Right to privacy/confidentiality
    Right to person choice
    Right to dispute/grievances
    Right to work or not work
    Right to participate in resident/family groups
    Right to care, security of personal possessions
    Right to freedom from abuse, mistreatment, neglect
    Right to freedom from restraint
    Right to quality of life
  • Chapter 3, p. 19
  • Chapter 3, p. 19

    Prior to the turn of the century, there was little control of drug administration by the federal government. The early standards, as early as 1777 when he army gave drugs to the soldiers, were difficult to enforce. Frequently unscrupulous persons would adulterate the drugs for personal profit. An early pioneer for safe reliable drugs was Dr. E.R. Squibb. In 1887, Dr. Squibb founded a drug company for the purpose of providing the physician with safe drugs that could be considered reliable. Dr. Squibb also wrote what is thought to be the first food and drug act for new York, the first state to have a Pure Food and Drug Act. The first federal legislation that was enacted to deal with the drug problems was the Food and Drug Act of 1906. The purpose of the Act of 1906 was to prevent the manufacture and sale of adulterated, misbranded, poisonous, or harmful foods or drugs. The legislation did accomplish the following:
    Defined eleven narcotics and required labeling of drugs that contained narcotics.
    Prohibited the false claims of cure-alls
    Provided for penalties if food or drugs were adulterated.
    Gave official status to United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and National Formulary (NF) as drug standards
    Gave the U.S. government authority to enforce official drug standards and to confiscate adulterated drugs or foods.

    The year 1938 brought new and broader federal legislation. The Pure Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Of 1938 grew out of tragedy. In 1937 a drug company produced a drug marketed as “elixir of sulfanilamide.” One hundred persons died after taking the drug. Tests found that the solvent had not been tested and was toxic. The only charge that could be legally brought against the company was one of mislabeling. The drug had been marketed as an elixir and was not a true elixir. This incident pointed to the need for more rigid and enforceable legislation.

    The Pure Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938 had as its purpose the rigid control of the manufacture, sale and distribution of all nonnarcotic drugs. The law also had the power to require testing before any drug was marketed.

    The food and Drug Administration was established as part of the Department of Health Education and Welfare. The Federal Drug Administration Agency was given the responsibility to enforce the law.

    Important contents of the law:
    Habit-forming drugs must be listed quantitatively on the label and must carry a warning that they are habit forming.
    Certain drugs can only be obtained by prescription.
    Warnings must appear on certain labels
    Testing is required to determine drug safety (Have 15 years to test- once proven safe- other companies can replicate)
    Nonprescription drugs must be classified
    Labeling of drugs must include:
    No false or misleading statements
    Language easily understood
    Dosage and frequency clearly stated- insuring safe consumption
    Name and business address of manufacturer
    Accurate statement of contents
    Any warnings, directions or contraindications for children or persons with specific disease conditions
    When unsafe for self medication, must state “Federal Law prohibits dispensing without a prescription”.

    This law has been amended several times to tighten controls on testing and drug safety. Rules are developed by the Department of health and enforced by the Federal Drug Administration Agency.
  • The original legislation responsible for the control of narcotics was the Harrison Narcotic Act of 1914. This law regulated the importation, manufacture, sale, dispensing, and prescribing of opium, cocaine, and such narcotic derivatives.

    The Marijuana Act of 1937 regulated the growth of hemp and the manufacture of hemp products.

    The late 1960’s brought widespread drug abuse and forced Congress to reconsider the legislation that controlled narcotic drugs. Congress passed the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act in the fall of 1970. This law known as the Controlled Substance Act, repealed all other legislation that dealt with narcotics or abused substances.

    The controlled substance laws were designed to improve the regulation, manufacture, distribution, and dispensing of drugs that are classified as either narcotics or dangerous.

    The congress provided for an agency to enforce the new laws and that the agency is know as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The DEA is part of the Department of Justice, and its director reports to the attorney general of the United States.

    The DEA is constantly checking drugs, reporting to the attorney general.

    Scheduled drugs need to be counted every 8 hours by 2 licensed professional. The medications must be kept under double lock and key.

    The first step in formulation of this legislation was to determine which drugs were to be controlled. It was determined that narcotics and drugs that were considered dangerous were the ones to be controlled. By dangerous it is meant that the drug had a potential for abuse or that it is capable of causing psychological or physical dependence. Such families are narcotics, barbiturates, amphetamines, sedatives, and hypnotics.

    Once the dangerous drugs were determined, the next step was to classify the drugs into schedules related to abuse potential or danger.
  • Chapter 3, p. 22
  • Chapter 3, p. 22
  • Signs of elder abuse Chapter 3, p. 23
  • Signs of child abuse Chapter 3, p. 25
  • Chapter 3, p. 23
  • Chapter 4, p. 27-51 See box 4-1 Basic observations
  • Chapter 4, p. 30
  • Chapter 4, p. 32-49
  • Chapter 4, p. 50-51
  • Chapter 5, p. 54-70
  • Day 1 Medication Aide

    1. 1. . Medication Aide Chapters 1-5
    2. 2. Things to know  Class is from  Breaks  Restrooms  Smoking  Vending machines  Parking lot  Food and drink  Cell phones  Questions  If you need to step out
    3. 3. Foreword  January 13, 1975  Non-parenteral medications by unlicensed personnel  Approved by  Iowa Board of Nursing  Iowa Department of Health  Iowa Board of Pharmacy Examiners
    4. 4. Cont.  June, 1978  Iowa Legislature gave the Iowa Board of Pharmacy Examiners the right to determine who can administer medications other than physicians, podiatrists, and dentists  Persons who have successfully completed a medication administration course approved by the Iowa Department of Health and the Iowa Board of Pharmacy Examiners  Advanced emergency medical technicians and paramedics  Registered physician assistants
    5. 5. Purpose of this course  The purpose of the course is to prepare people to safely administer nonparenteral medications in nursing facilities and related areas  You need to pay attention, take notes, and study to successful reach competencies in all skills and knowledge required
    6. 6. Quote to remember  In the administration of medications there is no place for luck. Therefore, we wish each of you success in achieving your goals. • UNIVERSITY OF IOWA CERTIFICATION CENTER, 2011
    7. 7. Introduction  Wellness is a predominate factor in health care.  Medications influence consumer at all ages in different ways.  Safety in drug preparation, administration, documentation and follow-up is essential.  As a medication aide, learning the principles and procedure of safe medication administration will help you to do your part to ensure resident safety in the area of medications.
    8. 8. Course overview  This is a 50-60 hour course which consists of 40-42 classroom hours and 10-20 clinical hours  A minimum of 10 hours clinical.  This will be in your individual facilities under the supervision of a RN Both you & the RN will need to sign off on the individual skill sheets in your workbook starting on p 109.  The emphasis is on the safe administration and students are provided theory and practice to achieve course competencies.
    9. 9. Course pre-requisites  Substance free and currently working in a facility  If employed in a certified nursing facility  All applicants must be employed for at least six months by the facility sponsor  Must be on the nurse aide registry  Provide recommendation from the administrator in the facility in which they are employed  If employed in a residential or related type of licensed facility  All applicants must be employed for at least six months by facility sponsor  Must provide evidence of successful completion of residential attendant course  Provide recommendation from the administrator in the facility in which they are employed
    10. 10. Cont….  .  If applicants are working in more than one type of facility, it is recommended that the higher requirements be met to allow applicant to legally work in multiple assignment areas.
    11. 11. continue  Medication aide from other states  Written documentation of current certification of medication aide in other state  Successfully complete nurse aide written and skills competency test prior to challenging written exam  Successfully complete medication aide challenge exam (both written and skill competency exams)
    12. 12. Why take the course? • These courses provide background information that will assist the applicant in successfully completing the Medication Aide course.
    13. 13. Requirements for class  Course Instructor:  The course instructor must be an RN for both didactic and clinical  Course methodology:  Classroom, laboratory, and clinical activities  Required textbook Mosby’s Textbook for Medication Assistants  Course evaluation:  You must pass the course with 80%. Successful completion of clinical hours with written documentation from the RN supervising you  Successful completion:  Both portions of the course; classroom and clinical, must be completed with 6 months of the beginning of the course. Upon successfully completing course a certificate will be mailed to you from the college.
    14. 14. Medication Aide Competencies  Describe the role and responsibilities of the medication aide  Discuss general information related to the administration of nonparenteral medications and explain how this information assists the medication aide in safely administrating nonparenteral medications  Administer nonparenteral medications  Utilize information regarding medication classifications when administrating medications
    15. 15. Requirements for Class  2 vocabulary tests (20 pts each)  3 tests (100 pts. each) There is an optional 4th test that can be completed if necessary  Final state exam this will be completed after completing your 10 hrs. of clinical  Clinical hours (at your facility)  Can be started after the 3rd day if you have passed your 1st tests  Completion of 20 med cards
    16. 16. Medication Cards (20 on 4x6 note cards)  Name: Brand & Generic  Dose  Side effects  Nsg. Precautions  Classification as to family  What is to do?  Anything unusual about the medication  Place to find information:     Drug hand books  These can be started on day 4 based on meds from your facility 4-5 from each chapter beginning with chapter 10
    17. 17. Unit I This unit will examine the role of the medication aide, what the medication aide will be prepared to do, and what the medication aide is not prepared to do. The legislation regarding administration of medications will be discussed. Safety in administering medication is also included.
    18. 18. Introduction  The guidelines to ensure the safety of consumers who receive medications are shared by both the federal and state governments. Federal and state laws identify safe practices for the preparation, issuance, and administration of drugs. Federal and state agencies are required to see that these laws are enforced. The purpose of the legislation and the agency enforcement is to protect the consumer as well as the health care worker who assists in the preparation, dispensing, and administration of drugs.
    19. 19. Cont….  The laws and rules for implementing the laws provide for safe standards of care. This requires that credentialing of the various levels of health workers who order, dispense, and administer medications. The credentialing assures that each health worker has been educationally prepared to assume responsibility within the assigned role. Each person who orders, dispenses, or administers medication IS RESPONSIBLE for his/her own actions. This responsibility requires the health care worker to be aware of the medical-legal problems that could arise when medications are administered to consumers.  The nurse you work under is responsible and so are you personally
    20. 20. Where do medication aides work?  Nursing facilities  Residential care facilities  Residential facilities for mentally retarded  Residential facilities for the mentally ill  Intermediate facilities for MR and mentally ill  Assisted living  NOT hospitals!
    21. 21. Role of the medication aide  Very important role in health care!  Always use sound judgment, be honest, have moral integrity, use common sense, be accurate, and develop good observational skills.  Should be able to determine when to refer to the licensed professional.
    22. 22. Terms  Nursing assistant personnel  CNA  CMA  Nurse practice act  Regulates the nursing practice in each state  Allows denying, revoking, and suspending licenses and certifications  Main purpose is to protect the puplic’s safety & welfare
    23. 23. Terms  Patient  Client  Resident  Consumer  All of these people are seeking a service that we as health care providers, provide.
    24. 24. Regulatory Agencies  State Board of Nursing  Department of Inspections and Appeals  Department of Human Services  Make sure standards of care are met  Refers to the skills, care, and judgment required by nursing assistive personnel under similar conditions.
    25. 25. Professional Boundaries  Separates helpful behaviors from behaviors that are not helpful  Boundary crossing  Brief act or behavior outside the helpful zone (something thoughtless you didn’t mean to do)  Boundary Violation  Acts or behaviors that meet your own needs (abuse, too much self- disclosure)  Professional sexual misconduct  Act, behavior, or comment sexual in nature  Boundary signs  Acts, behaviors, or thoughts that warm boundary crossing (accepting gifts from residents)
    26. 26. Responsibilities  To yourself  To legally and ethically protect themselves the aide must have knowledge which includes basic preparation through class and continued study of new methods for the administration of medications. Don’t stop learning!  Must know your limits. What you can and can’t do  Knowledge of resident’s rights  Right to know  Right to refuse  Dignity and privacy  Right to self administration  A right to a competent, caring medication aide
    27. 27. The organization  You owe loyalty to the organization for which you work.  You are responsible for knowing and following your facility policies.  Know and respect the roles of others  Work as a team  I teach you the basic, but you need to learn your facility policy and protocols.  This does take time
    28. 28. Job description  Give only medicines from written orders of the prescriber. You need an order for everything- even chap stick!  Work within your scope of practice
    29. 29. Know or look up  Intended use/why is this consumer receiving this medication  When is this medication expected to work  Side effects which might occur  Interactions with other medications, food, alcohol, herbals  Special administration and storage considerations  Is this a controlled substance: if so, which schedule is it in?
    30. 30. 6 rights  Right person  Right drug  Right time  Right route  Right dose  Right documentation
    31. 31. special physical conditions  Know if consumer is allergic to certain medications, ability to swallow and how this might affect how medication is administrated  “As needed drugs” determined by nurse  Safe medication to prevent complications- prevent errors  Report signs and symptoms, side effects, and adverse reactions to the nurse  Give as needed drugs as specified by nurse  Prevent drug errors
    32. 32. What to report to the nurse Life threatening signs/symptoms Life threatening events Drugs that have no results as observed or reported to you Drugs that have undesirable effects as observed or reported to you
    33. 33. Measure, report, record measurements as related to ordered drugs  Vital signs  Weight/height  Intake/output  Blood glucose
    34. 34. Cont.  Record drugs given following agency procedure and policy  Follow agency policy/procedure for reporting and recording drug errors or suspected drug errors
    35. 35. Follow administration rules  Right dose  Right medication  Right consumer  Right time  Right method  Record  Know the 6 rights!!!!!
    36. 36. limitations  Do not give drugs, unless allowed by state law, if:  Person’s need for drug must be assessed by licensed nurse  Drug requires dosage calculation  Dosage of drug must be converted from one measurement system to another  Nurse not available to monitor person’s progress  Nurse not available to monitor how drug affects person  Person is not stable  Person’s nursing needs are changing
    37. 37. Medication Aides CANNOT do  Parenteral medications  Take medication order  Transcribe order  Calculate dosage  Return medication to container or dispose of medications  PRN medications  Enteral medications  Wound care  Oxygen, nebulizers  Enemas
    38. 38. Cont.  Glucose monitoring(unless trained by a RN, according to the manufacture’s instructions- completes a return demo-must be repeated every 6 mo, keep a copy for you & in your personnel file)  Preparations of meds for outings  Re-label medication containers or transfer medication from one container to another  Distribute medication someone else has set up or take medications from an unmarked or soiled container
    39. 39. Delegation  Nurse legally accountable for nursing task; delegates administration of medications to medication aide  Nurse provides clear/complete directions  Must be within the scope of practice and training of a medication aide  Assesses person’s need for drug  Determines need for PRN drugs  Assesses and evaluates side effects  Recognizes allergic reactions  Assesses/evaluates immediate desired effects  Assesses/evaluates unusual effects
    40. 40. Cont.  Recognizes when drug use is harmful  Recognizes when drug is no longer needed  Anticipates effects which affects the person’s life or well-being  Make judgment/decision of action to take if person’s life/wellbeing is threatened
    41. 41. Four steps to delegation  Assess and plan  Communication- clear, complete direction  Surveillance and Supervision  Evaluation and Feedback
    42. 42. Five Rights of Delegation  The right task  The right circumstance  The right person  The right directions and communication  The right supervision
    43. 43. Your choice  Accepting the task  When you agree to perform a task, you are responsible for your own actions.  Refusing the task  you have the right to say “no”  Tell the nurse about your concerns
    44. 44. Ethical conduct  Knowledge of right and wrong  Be nonjudgmental and nonbiased  Do not cause person harm  Based on person’s values/standards  Code of conduct  Residents rights
    45. 45. Duty to facility/organization  Facility policies  Administrator  Supervising nurse  Physician  Pharmacist
    46. 46. Duty to self  Knowledgeable  Medication information  Medication preparation  Medication administration  Recording/reporting  Facility policies  Legal responsibilities  Know limitations  Drug free
    47. 47. Advance directives  Living will  Document about measures that support or maintain life when death is likely (tube feedings, CPR)  Durable power of attorney for health care  Gives power to another person to make health care decisions in the even you can no longer do this.  Do not resuscitate (no code)
    48. 48. Federal legislation related to medication use/administration  Drug legislation  Pure Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act of 1938  Determine safety/effectiveness of drugs  Ensure manufactures meet labeling requirements  Ensure advertising standards met  Legal classifications of drugs  Over the counter drugs  Prescription drugs  Controlled substances
    49. 49. Comprehensive Drug Abuse Preventions and Control Act of 1970  Drug classification  Schedule 1 drugs (Experimental, high potential for abuse)  Schedule 2 (accepted medical use, still high potential for abuse)  Schedule 3 (high potential for abuse, moderate to low physical dependence, high psychological dependence)  Schedule 4 (low potential for abuse)  Schedule 5 (prescription not needed)
    50. 50. Torts and Crimes  Civil laws  Concerned with relationships between people.  Criminal laws  Concerned with offenses against the public and society in general  Torts  A wrong committed against a person or the person’s property  Negligence  Unintended wrong  Malpractice  Negligence by a professional person
    51. 51. Intentional Torts  Defamation  Injuring a person’s name and reputation by making false statements to a third person.  Libel  Making false statements in print, writing, or through pictures or drawings  Slander  Making a false statement orally  False imprisonment  Unlawful restraint or restriction of a person’s freedom of movement  Invasion of privacy  Violating a person’s right not to have his or her name, photo, or private affairs exposed or made public without giving consent  Protected health information  HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act 1996)  Fraud  Saying of doing something to trick, fool, or deceive a person
    52. 52. Assault & Battery  Assault  Intentionally attempting or threatening to touch a person’s body without the person’s consent  Battery  Touching a person’s body without his or her consent.
    53. 53. Possession of a controlled substance  Federal and state laws make the possession of controlled substances a crime.  Can have a controlled substance in your possession if:  Administering the medication to a person while on a outing  The person is receiving the medication themselves  The official custodian of a limited supply of a controlled substance
    54. 54. Abuse  Is the intentional mistreatment or harm of another person  Abuse has one or more of these elements  Willful causing of injury  Unreasonable confinement  Intimidation (to make afraid with threats, force, or violence)  Punishment  Depriving the person of the goods or services needed for physical, mental, or psychological well-being
    55. 55. Vulnerable adults  Are persons 18 years or older who have disabilities or conditions that make them at risk to be wounded, attacked, or damaged.  Mental, emotional, physical, or developmental disability  Brain damage  Changes from aging
    56. 56. Elder abuse  Physical abuse  Neglect  Verbal abuse  Involuntary seclusion  Financial exploitation  Emotional abuse  Sexual abuse  Abandonment
    57. 57. Child Abuse and Neglect  Involve the following  Child 18 years or younger  Recent act or failure to act on the part of a parent or caregiver  The act or failure to act results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse, or exploitation  The act or failure to act presents a likely or immediate risk for harm
    58. 58. Types of child abuse  Physical abuse  Neglect  Sexual abuse  Molestation  Rape or sexual assault  Child pornography  Incest  Child prostitution  Emotional abuse  Substance abuse  Abandonment
    59. 59. Domestic abuse  Domestic violence, partner abuse  Physical abuse  Sexual abuse  Verbal abuse  Economic abuse  Social abuse
    60. 60. Nursing process  Assessment  Observation (see, listen, touch, smell)  Objective data (signs seen, heard, smelled)  Subjective data (symptoms resident tells you)  Nursing diagnosis  P. 31 box 4-3  Planning  Nursing interventions  Nursing care plan  Implementation  Evaluation
    61. 61. Observations to report immediately  Change in the ability to respond  Change in mobility  Complaints of sudden, severe pain  Sore or reddened area on skin  Complaint of sudden vision change  Complaint of pain/difficulty breathing  Abnormal respirations  Complaint of signs of difficulty swallowing  Vomiting  Bleeding  Vital signs outside normal ranges
    62. 62. Processing of measuring vital signs & etc..  Accurate measurements  Temperature  Pulse  Respirations  Blood pressure  Pain  Height & Weight  Blood glucose testing
    63. 63. How to accurately report  Report care and observations  Resident’s name, room #  Time observation made, care given  Report as resident’s condition changes  Report changes from normal at once  Record  What you observed  What you did  The resident’s response  Complete medication record (drugs given, time)
    64. 64. Rules for recording  Write in ink and writing readable, neat  Include date, time of each entry  Use only approved abbreviations  Use correct spelling, grammar, punctuation  Don’t use ditto marks  Never erase or use correction fluid (white out)  Sign all entries with name, title  Do not skip lines  Make sure form has resident’s name and identification  Record only what observe and did
    65. 65. Cont…  Do not record for someone else  Don’t chart until procedure, treatment, or care is complete  Be accurate, concise, factual  Be descriptive  Use person’s exact words  Chart changes from normal  Do not omit information  Record safety measure used
    66. 66. Cont….  The person in control of the key to medication cabinet is determined by each facility. The key is to be carried by the person directly responsible for the administration of drugs. If you are the responsible person, KEEP IT WITH YOU AT ALL TIMES!!!!  Medication storage and handling:  Iowa Department of Inspections and Appeals developed the Rules and Regulations regarding drugs, storage and handling in nursing facilities.
    67. 67. Basic structure of the cell  Cell  Cell membrane (covering)  Nucleus (control center)  Cytoplasm (surrounds the nucleus)  Protoplasm (living substance within the cell)  Chromosomes (carries genes, each cell has 46) • Mitosis  Tissue growth and repair (cell division)  Tissue (groups of cells) role  Epithelial (covers internal and external body surfaces)  Connective (anchors, connects, and supports other tissues)  Muscle (stretches and contracts to let body move)  Nerve tissue (receives and carries impulses to the brain and back to body parts)
    68. 68.  Organs  A group of tissue with the same function form. Has one or more functions  Systems  Formed by organs that work together to perform special functions.
    69. 69. Systems  Integumentary (skin)  Layers  Epidermis  Dermis  Subcutaneous tissue  Appendages  Hair  Nails  Sweat glands  Oil glands  Functions  Protective covering  Prevents microorganisms, other from enter body  Prevents loss of excess fluids from body  Helps regulate body temperature  Nerve endings sense pleasant, unpleasant stimulations
    70. 70. Systems cont.  Musculoskeletal  Bones  Long bones (bear body weight)  Short bones (allow skill and easy movement)  Flat bones (protect organs)  Irregular bones (vertebrae and spinal column)  Joints  Cartilage  Synovial fluid  Synovial membrane  Ligaments  Ball and socket joint  Hinge joint  Pivot joint
    71. 71. Cont.  Muscles  Voluntary muscles  Involuntary muscles  Cardiac muscle  Move body parts, maintain posture, produce heat  Tendons connect muscle to bone  Function  Provide framework for body  Lets body move  Protects body  Gives body shape
    72. 72. Nervous system  Central nervous system  Brain  Spinal cord  meninges  Peripheral nervous system  Cranial nerves  Spinal nerves  Sympathetic nervous system  Parasympathetic nervous system  Function  Nerves carry messages to and from brain  Brain controls reasoning, speech, memory, consciousness, voluntary muscles movement, vision, sensation, balance, vital functions, involuntary processes
    73. 73. Sensory Organs  Eye  Sclera (white part)  Choroid (blood vessels)  Pupil (middle of the iris)  Retina (inner layer- receptor)  Aqueous chamber (separates cornea from lens)  Aqueous & Vitreous humor (maintains eye shape)  Optic nerve (carries messages)  Cornea (light enters)  Ear  External ear (pinna)  Middle ear (malleus, incus, stapes)  Inner ear (semicircular canals, cochlea)  Auditory nerve
    74. 74. Circulatory System  Blood  Red blood cells (hemoglobin- picks up oxygen)  White blood cells (leukocytes- fights infection)  Platelets (thrombocytes- for blood clotting)  Plasma (carries substances the body needs)  Function  Carriers food, oxygen, etc… to cell  Remove waste products from cells  Helps regulate body temperature  Assists in preventing & fighting infection
    75. 75. Cont…  Heart  Layers (pericardium, myocardium, endocardium)  Chambers (right & left atrium, right & left ventricles)  Valves (tricuspid & mitral)  Phases (diastole & systole)  Function- pump blood to body
    76. 76. Cont…  Blood vessels  Arteries (carry blood away from the heart)  Veins (return blood to the heart)  Capillaries (tiny vessels where food oxygen exchanged for waste products)  Function- system to move blood throughout body
    77. 77. Respiratory system  Respiration  Inhalation  exhalation  Upper airway  Nose  Pharynx  Larynx  epiglottis  Lower airway  Trachea  Lungs  Right & left bronchus  Bronchioles  alveoli
    78. 78. Cont…  Diaphragm  Ribs, sternum, vertebrae  function:- provide oxygen to body, remove carbon dioxide
    79. 79. Digestive System  Gastro-intestinal or GI system or Alimentary Canal  Digestion- breakdown of food for use by cells  Mouth  Pharynx  Esophagus  Stomach  Small intestines (duodenum, jejunum, ileum)  Large intestine (colon)  rectum
    80. 80. Cont…  Accessary organs  Teeth, tongue  Salivary glands  Liver  Gallbladder  pancreas  Peristalsis  Involuntary muscle contraction
    81. 81. Urinary system  Kidneys  Nephrons  Convoluted tubules  Bowman’s capsule  Glomerulus  Collecting tubule  Renal pelvis  Ureter  Bladder  Urethra  Meatus  Function  Remove waste products from body  Maintain water balance in body
    82. 82. Reproductive system  Male  Testes  Epididymis  Vas deferens  Seminal vesicle  Sperm  Ejaculatory duct  Prostate gland  Scrotum  Hormone- testosterone
    83. 83. Cont…  Female  Ovaries  Eggs  Fallopian tubes  Uterus  Vagina  Hormones – estrogen, progesterone  Mammary glands
    84. 84. Endocrine system  Endocrine glands  Pituitary (master gland)  GH, TSH, ACTH  ADH, and oxytocin  Thyroid gland (regulates metabolism)  Parathyroid glands (regulates calcium use)  Adrenal gland (produce energy quickly in emergency)  Pancreas (regulates amount of sugar in blood, produces insulin)  Gonads (glands for reproduction)
    85. 85. Immune system  Protects body from disease & infection  Antibodies  Antigens  Phagocytes  Lymphocytes  B lymphocytes  T lymphocytes