View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!Introducing SlideShare for AndroidExplore all your favorite topics in the SlideShare appGet the SlideShare app to Save for Later — even offline
View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new Android app!View stunning SlideShares in full-screen with the new iOS app!
Common Drinking Water Problems and Solutions Symptoms in Water Common Causes Possible SolutionsGrayish white film in sinks, tubs, Hardness due to calcium and magnesium dissolved Ion exchange water softener (exchangesdishes, reduced suds in laundry, from bedrock. There is no drinking standard but a calcium and magnesium for sodium orfrequent failure of water heater hardness level above about 120 mg/L 1 or 7 grains potassium).elements, scale in teapots. per gallon is most likely to cause these symptoms.Water which is initially clear but Iron dissolved from bedrock or from nearby distur- Water softener (low to moderate con-produces brown, orange or red- bance (mining, etc.). Iron above the drinking water centrations of iron if recommended bydish stains or sediment, metallic standard (SMCL2) of 0.3 mg/L is most likely to cause manufacturer) or oxidizing filter fortasting water. these symptoms. higher concentrations (pH adjustment of water may be necessary). Manganese concentration should also be considered when choosing treatment (see below).Black specks or black stains, me- Manganese dissolved from bedrock or from nearby Water softener (low concentrations oftallic tasting water. Standing disturbance (mining, etc.). Manganese above the manganese if recommended by manufac-water (tub or toilet tank) may SMCL of 0.05 mg/L will cause these symptoms. turer), oxidizing filter for higher concen-appear gray or black. trations (pH adjustment of water may be necessary to optimize removal).Salty taste, corrosion of metals. Chloride dissolved from bedrock or from various Reverse osmosis or distillation systems at local activities (road salt, gas drilling brines, etc.). individual taps. As chloride is very diffi- Chloride above the SMCL of 250 mg/L is most likely cult to remove from water, consider de- to cause these symptoms. veloping new source of water.Orange or opaque gelatinous film Iron bacteria. There is no drinking water standard Shock chlorination of well, continuousor strands coating toilet, and for iron bacteria in water but any presence of these down-well chlorination using pellet drop-sinks, musty odor. Oily film on bacteria can cause these symptoms. pers in severe cases. Follow-up withwater surface (see also page 2). multi-level media unit. Carbon filtration may be needed to reduce chlorine.Gurgling or bubbling noise in Dissolved gases in water (methane, ethane, carbon Continue routine testing if concentra-well, spurting faucets, white gas dioxide) from natural sources or from mining/gas tions is below 7 mg/L. Install vented wellbubbles in water. drilling. There are no standards for these gases. cap above about 7 mg/L and aeration Methane concentrations above 28 mg/L are most system for higher concentrations (above likely to cause these symptoms. about 28 mg/L).Rotten egg odor in cold and hot Hydrogen sulfide, sulfides, sulfate reducing bacte- Shock chlorination of well (in somewater, black greasy stains. ria in groundwater. There is no standard but any cases), oxidizing filter, continuous amount can cause these symptoms. NOTE: odor at chlorination and filtration. Activated car- one sink may be caused by bacteria in drain rather bon filtration may be used for less severe than water (disinfect drain to remove odor). cases.Rotten egg odor in hot water Hydrogen sulfide generated by a chemical reaction Remove and omit rod or replace withonly. with anti-corrosion magnesium rod (often called the alternate metal rod (caution: removing “anode rod”) in hot water heater. rod may void the heater warranty). 1