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Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies
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Parvoviral myocarditis in puppies

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  • If the bitch is infected at the time of birth it will take up to 15 days to produce adequate antibodies in colostrum (JK)
  • McGavin 376-380
  • Enterocyte turnover increases up to 3 weeks old (Neonatal pigs is 7-10 days, and at 3 weeks old its 2-3 days) McGavin p342
  • Transcript

    • 1. Parvoviral myocarditis in a litter of puppies Brian Caserto Anatomic Pathology Resident Kansas State Universtiy Manhattan, KS
    • 2. History <ul><li>Nine out of 11 puppies in a litter died over a 4 week period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Born at a shelter to a bitch with no known vaccination history </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All had dyspnea leading to respiratory distress and death </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths occurred at 1 week, 4 weeks, 5 weeks and 6 weeks of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Four 4-6 week old pups were submitted for evaluation </li></ul>
    • 3. Gross Lesions <ul><li>Lungs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multifocal edema and congestion (Pups # 1, and 3) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe diffuse congestion and edema in Pup #4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No gross lesions (Pup #2) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pale myocardium with red streaking (Pup #4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No lesions in Pups 1, 2, and 3 </li></ul></ul>
    • 4. Pup #4
    • 5. Pup #4
    • 6. Histologic Lesions <ul><li>All hearts examined histologically had similar lesions (Pups #2-4) </li></ul><ul><li>Myocarditis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoplasmacytic, histiocytic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cardiomyocyte degeneration and necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Basophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusions </li></ul>
    • 7.  
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    • 9.  
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    • 11. Histologic lesions cont… <ul><li>Pulmonary edema and congestion (Pups # 1-4) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart failure </li></ul></ul>
    • 12. Immunohistochemistry <ul><li>Positive for Canine Parvovirus-2 (Pups #2- 3) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Throughout the heart the nuclei and sometimes cytoplasm stained strongly positive </li></ul></ul>
    • 13.  
    • 14. Other diagnostic tests <ul><li>Virus Isolation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative (All 4 pups) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aerobic culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slight to moderate growth of Streptococcus sp, alpha hemolytic (kidney Pup #1, Lung Pup #4) </li></ul></ul>
    • 15. Canine Parvovirus <ul><li>CPV-2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1978 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arose from Feline Panleukopenia-like virus in wild foxes 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CPV-2 rapidly mutated to CPV-2a and CPV-2b, and since 2001 CPV-2c 1,10 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CPV-1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPV-2 is antigenically/ serologically/ genomically distinct from CPV-1 (minute virus of canines) 1 </li></ul></ul>
    • 16. CPV-2 Susceptibility <ul><li>Pups born to naïve bitches (no antibodies) </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to receive adequate colostrum </li></ul><ul><li>Postweaning period (declining maternal antibodies) 3,5,7,9 </li></ul><ul><li>Virus enters the cell via the transferrin receptor and virion replication is dependent on host cell nucleoprotein synthesis prior to mitosis 1 </li></ul>
    • 17. CVP-2 Disease syndromes <ul><li>2 weeks old </li></ul><ul><ul><li>generalized disease with focal necrosis of liver, kidney, heart, vessel, bone marrow, intestine 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3-8 weeks old </li></ul><ul><ul><li>myocarditis- dogs that survive may die later due to myocardial scarring- up to 5 months later 3,5,7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8 weeks and older </li></ul><ul><ul><li>necrotizing enteritis with crypt necrosis 1,2,3,4,6 </li></ul></ul>
    • 18. Cardiac Disease <ul><li>Puppies born to naïve bitches died with signs of respiratory distress 8 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross lesions can include pale mottling of myocardium and moderate to severe pulmonary edema and congestion 5,7 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The disease was produced experimentally in puppies 5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardial degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphoplasmacytic interstitial infiltrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Healing by fibrosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enteric disease was produced using virus from the cardiac disease 7 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4-7 week old pups were inoculated and developed the enteric disease with typical lesions. </li></ul></ul>
    • 19. Diagnostics <ul><li>Histopath </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Basophilic to amphophilic intranuclear inclusions in cardiac myocytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lymphocytic and histiocytic inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myofiber degeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IHC </li></ul><ul><li>FA </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPV-2a,b,c </li></ul></ul>
    • 20. Summary <ul><li>All 4 pups had clinical signs of heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>3 of 4 pups had gross lesions consistent with heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Pup 4 had gross lesions in the heart </li></ul><ul><li>All 3 hearts that we examined had histologic lesions typical of Parvoviral infection </li></ul><ul><li>Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of the virus in hearts of 2 pups </li></ul><ul><li>No other significant infectious agents were identified in the heart or lungs </li></ul>
    • 21. References <ul><li>1. Brown, CC, Baker, DC, Barker, IK: Alimentary system. In: Pathology of Domestic Animals, ed Maxie, MG, 5th ed, Vol 2, p. 177, Saunders (Elsevier), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Decaro, N., Cirone F.,  Desario, C.,   Elia, G. , Lorusso , E. , Colaianni, M. L.,   Martella, V. and  Buonavoglia, C. Severe parvovirus in a 12-year-old dog that had been repeatedly vaccinated. The Veterinary Record 164:593-595 (2009). </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gelberg, H: Alimentary system. In: Pathologic Basis of Veterinary Disease, eds. McGavin, DM, Zachary, JF, 4th ed., pp. 378-379. Mosby (Elsevier), St Louis, Missouri 2007. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Meunier, PC, Cooper, BJ, Appel, Lanieu, ME, Slauson, DO. Pathogenesis of canine parvovirus enteritis: sequential virus distribution and passive immunization studies. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 22, Issue 6 617-624, 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Meunier, PC, Cooper, BJ, Appel, MJ, Slauson, DO. Experimental viral myocarditis: parvoviral infection of neonatal pups. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 21, Issue 5 509-515, 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Nelson, DT, Eustis, SL, McAdaragh, JP, and Stotz, I.: Lesions of spontaneous canine viral enteritis. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 16, Issue 6 680-686, 1979. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Robinson, WF, Huxtable, CR, Pass, DA. Canine parvoviral myocarditis: a morphologic description of the natural disease. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 17, Issue 3 282-293, 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Robinson, WF, Wilcox, GE, Flower, RL. Canine parvoviral disease: experimental reproduction of the enteric form with a parvovirus isolated from a case of myocarditis. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 17, Issue 5 589-599, 1980. </li></ul><ul><li>Meunier, PC, Cooper, BJ, Appel, MJ, Slauson, DO. Experimental viral myocarditis: parvoviral infection of neonatal pups. Veterinary Pathology, Vol 21, Issue 5 509-515, 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Spibey, N., Greenwood, N. M., Sutton, D., Chalmers, W. S. & Tarpey, I. Canine parvovirus type 2 vaccine protects against virulent challenge with type 2c virus. Veterinary Microbiology 128,48 -55, 2008. </li></ul><ul><li>10. Vieira, M. J., Silva, E., Oliveira, J., Vieira, A. L., Decaro, N., Desario, C., Muller, A., Carvalheira, J., Bbuonovoglia, C. & Thompson, G. Canine parvovirus 2c infection in central Portugal.  Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 20, 488-491, 2008. </li></ul>
    • 22. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Photomicrographs courtesy of Gordon Andrews </li></ul><ul><li>Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Lab (KSVDL) </li></ul>

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