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Research Problem• Male College students are SIGNIFICANTLY less likely to attend counseling than females.• Recent research suggests that being male / possessing masculine traits is related to health concerns, psychological disorders, related distress (Good, Sherrod, & Dillon, 2000: Hayes & Mahalik, 2000; Sabo, 2000; as quoted in Rochlen, 2005).
Research Problem• Masculinity related constructs associated with clinically relevant problems and reluctance to seek therapy (Good, Thompson, & Braithwhite, 2005).• Men’s underutilization of counseling in comparison to women is a consistent finding in help-seeking literature (Addis & Mahalik, 2003); empirical data is needed to determine ways of improving mens willingness to seek help (Rochlen, 2005)
WHY?are men not seeking counseling on college campuses? This is what we hope to discover.
Model Development• Unique challenges when working with men, especially incongruence between culture of therapy and culture (rules) of masculinity (Rochlen, 2005).• Mens socialization described as promoting avoidance of emotional expression, absence of vulnerabilities, need to solve problems without the help of others (Addis & Mahalik, 2003; Good & Englar-Carlson, 2003, as quoted in Rochlen, 2005).
•Strength of therapeutic alliance is single best predictor of therapeutic outcome (Messer & Wampold, 2002). •Masculinity can be considered a multicultural competency (Liu, 2005). •Professional-staff ethnicity is positively correlated with likelihood of similar-ethnicity students seeking counseling on college campuses, suggesting that increasing the # of therapssts of color on counseling center staff will increase utilization by ethnically- similar students (Hayes, Youn, Castonguay, Locke, McAleavey, & Nordberg, 2011). •Perhaps the same principle might apply to another form of cultural identity; masculinity.SO:
Hypothesis: = IncreasedIncreased #’s male college of male student help counselors seeking
Design• Retrospective design, Convenience sample.• Data from the last 4 years at 1 liberal arts college in the mid-west.• # + % of clients + gender breakdown.• Gender breakdown of Counselors.• Chi-Square to detect significant diff. of male utilization dependent on % of male counselors.
Design• Why Chi-Square? • Chi-square helps us when comparing frequency data. • Applies to data that has been categorized into a small number of groups (in our case, gender).
2008 • %2.3 Male Clients • %20 Male Counselors 2009 • %2.3 Male Clients • %0 Male Counselors 2010 • %2.5 Male Clients • %20 Male Counselors 2011 • %1.7 Male Clients • %40 Male Counselors%’s of male clients based on total school population.
Results!The analysis showed that 9 cells had an expected countof less than 5, so an exact significance test was selectedfor Pearson’s Chi-Square. Results indicated that malecollege student utilization rates are not associated with %of male counselors at center, 2(4, N = 8) = 10 p=.062.•In English: Chi Square indicated NO significant correlationbetween % males utilizing counseling center and # ofmale counselors.
Table percentmaleclients * percentmalecounselors CrosstabulationCount percentmalecounselors .00 20.00 40.00 Totalpercentmaleclients 1.70 0 0 2 2 2.30 2 2 0 4 2.50 0 2 0 2Total 2 4 2 8 Chi-Square Tests Asymp. Sig. (2- Value df sided) Exact Sig. (2-sided) Exact Sig. (1-sided) Point ProbabilityPearson Chi-Square 10.000a 4 .040 .062Likelihood Ratio 11.090 4 .026 .086Fishers Exact Test 6.691 .086Linear-by-Linear Association 3.500b 1 .061 .071 .036 .014N of Valid Cases 8a. 9 cells (100.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.b. The standardized statistic is -1.871.
• % of male counselors who were interns.• Small sample sizes of clients + limitations counselors.• One specific college with a unique culture; not representative• Does fact that there is a mens- oriented process / development group impact results?
• Utilize massive data-set from Center for Collegiate Future directions Mental Health.• Perform MANCOVA to determine representative utilization rates + factors contributing to utilization by college men. – including gender %’s of staff.
References:• Addis, M.E., & Mahalik, J.R. (2003). Men, Masculinity, and the contexts of help-seeking. American Psychologist, 58, 5-14• Good, G., Thompson, D., & Brathwaite, A. (2005). Men and Therapy: Critical Concepts, Theoretical Frameworks, and Research Recommendations. Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol 61(6), 699-711• Hayes, J., Youn, S., Castonguay, L., Locke, B., McAleavey, A, & Nordberg, S. (2011). Rates and Predictors of Counseling Center Use Among College Students of Color. Journal of College Counseling, Vol 14(2), 105-116.• Liu, W. (2005). The Study of Men and Masculinity as an Important Multicultural Competency Consideration. Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol 61(6),685-687.• Rochlen, A. (2005). Men In (and Out of) Therapy: Central Concepts, Emerging Directions, and Remaining Challenges. Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol 61(6), 627-631