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Anatomy revision

Anatomy revision






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    Anatomy revision Anatomy revision Presentation Transcript

    • Fontal bone • Superciliary arches • Supraorbital margin • GlabellaZygomatic process• Temporal processMaxilla• Hard palate• Infraorbital foramina
    • PterionOccipital bone • Anterior division of middle• Occipital condyles• External occipital protuberance meningeal artery• Superior nuchal line Zygomatic process • Temporal process Temporal bone • Zygomatic process • Superior and inferior temporal line • External acoustic meatus • Mastoid process • Squamous suture
    • • DURA MATER – deep to anterior division of Brainstem middle meningeal artery • Midbrain • Pons • Medulla oblongata Spinal cord • Medulla oblongata • Conus medullaris • Cauda equina • Spinal nerves • Dura mater • Falx cerebri • Tentorium cerebelli Stops rotatory • Falx cerebelli displacement of the brain • Diaphragma sellaeForebrain• Cerebral hemispheres SCALP• Thalamus and hypothymus • SkinMidbrain • Connective tissueHindbrain • Aponeurosis (occipitfrontalis)• Pons • Loose areolar connective tissue• Medulla oblongata • Pericranium (periosteum)• cerebellum
    • Dural Venous Sinuses - periosteal and meningeal Superior sagittal Inferior sagittal sinus sinusStraight sinus Sigmoid sinus Transverse sinus Confluence of sinuses Superior sagittal sinus  Confluence of sinuses  R. Transverse  R. sigmoid  R. Internal Jugular
    • SCALP• Skin• Connective tissue• Aponeurosis (occipitfrontalis)• Loose areolar connective tissue• Pericranium (periosteum)
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Ventricular system• Secreted by choroidal epithelial cells of the choroid plexus • Lateral ventricles • 3rd ventricleArachnoid granulations • Cerebral aqueduct• Prolonations of the arachnoid mater • 4th ventricle• Protude through the meningeal layer of the dura mater• Open into the venour sinuses Cranial Nerve Cranial Nerve CN I Olfactory nerve CN VII Facial nerve CN II Optic nerve CN VIII Vestibulocochlear nerve CN III Oculomotor nerve CN IX Glossopharyngeal nerve CN IV Trochlear nerve CN X Vagus nerve CN V Trigeminal nerve CN XI Accessory nerve CN VI Abducent nerve CNXII Hypoglossal nerve
    • Cranial nerves1. Olfactory nerve - Cribriform plate of the Ethmoid bone2. Optic nerve – optic canal (opthalmic artery)3. Oculomotor – superior optical fissure4. Trochlear – Superior obtical fissure5. Trigeminal Obthalmic Va- superior orbital fissure Maxillary Vb – foramen rotundum Mandibular Vc –foramen ovale6. Abducent – superior orbital fissure7. Facial – internal auditory meatus (passes through parotid)8. Vestibulocochlear – internal auditory meatus9. Glossopharygeal – jugular foramen10.Vagus – jugular foramen11.Accessory – jugular formen12.Hypoglossal – hypoglossal canal
    • Muscles of facial expression • Occipitofrontalis Innervation – facial CN VII • Orbicularis oculi • Temporal • Zygomaticus major • Zygomatic • Zygomaticus minor • Buccal • Orbicularis oris • Mandibular • Levator anguli oris • Cervical • Depressor anguli oris • Levator labii superioris • Depressor labii inferiorisLR6 SO4 REM3• Lateral rectus muscle – abducent (6)• Superior oblique muscle – trochlear (4)• Remaining – oculomotor (3)
    • Trigeminal nerve CN V Supratrochlear Frontal nerve Supraorbital Anterior External nasalOpthalmic Va ethmoidal Nasocillary Infratrochlear nerve Posterior Lacrimal ethmoidal
    • Mandibular Vc Anterior division Deep temporal MassetericBuccal nerve Lateral pterygoid nerves nerve Aurticulotemporal Mandibular Vc Lingual nerve Posterior division Mental nerve Inferior alveolar Mylohyoid nerve
    • Maxillary VbZygomatictemporal Zygomaticofacial Infraorbital Supraorbital n. Supratrochlear n. Lacrimal n. Infratrochlear n. External nasal n. Zygomaticotemporal n. Infraorbital n. Zygomaticofacial n. Auriculotemporal n. Mental n. Buccal n.
    • Cutaneous innervation of scalp, Cutaneous innervation of scalp, POSTERIOR to ear andANTERIOR to ear and vertex of the vertex of the skullskull • Lesser occipital (anterior ramus od C2)• Supratrochlear and supraorbital • Greater occipital nerve (posterior ramus of C2)• Zygomaticotemporal • Greater auricular nerve (anterior rami of C2 and C3)• Auriculotemporal • Third occipital nerve (posterior ramus C3)Carotid sheath• Common carotid artery and internal carotid artery• Internal jugular vein• Vagus nerve (X) Facial nerve • Temporal • Zygomatic • Buccal • Mandibular • Cervical
    • Temporalis muscle• Coronoid processMasseter muscle• Anterior 2/3 of zygomatic arch• Ramus and angle of mandible
    • Instrinsic mucles – changeshape of tongueExtrensic – change porition• Palatoglossus• Hyoglossus• Styloglossus• genioglossus Palatoglossus m.Styloglossus m.Hyoglossus m. Genioglossus m.
    • Anterior triangle of neck • Superior : body of mandible • Anterior : midline • Porterior : anterior border of the STERNOCLEIDOMASTOID MUSCLE Infrahyoid muscles • Omohyoid (supeior/inferior bellies) • Sternohyoid • Thyrohyoid • sternothryoidPosterior triangle of neck• Anterior : posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle• Porterior : anterior border of TRAPEZIUS• Inferior : middle 1/3 of clavicle