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  • 1. The Gilded Age
    • Period after Reconstruction
    • Poor presidential leadership
    • Immigrants arrive
    • Corruption in politics
    • Laissez Faire and Social Darwinism
    • Labor Unions
  • 2. Poor leadership
    • Very few presidents during this period did anything to make life better.
    • They followed a laissez faire attitude. This means “hands-off” by the government. The government just did not do much to regulate any industries.
    • People also believed in Social Darwinism-survival of the fittest.
  • 3. Immigrant arrive to U.S.
    • Immigrants after the Civil War arrived mostly from Eastern Europe.
    • They were not use to a democratic type of government.
    • They arrived at Ellis Island in N.Y. and Angel Island in California.
    • Not everyone welcomed the immigrants, they were called Nativist.
  • 4. City life
    • Immigrants were working long hours and for very few wages. Would you work for a dollar a day?
    • Working conditions were very unsafe and there was child labor, as young as 10 years old.
    • Jane Addams-she was the founder of Hull House in Chicago. She tried to help immigrants.
  • 5. Living conditions
    • Living conditions in the cities were very bad.
    • Living spaces were overcrowded and run down.
    • There were open sewers and crowded streets.
    • There are no regulations in place for safety.
  • 6. Labor Unions
    • The Knights of Labor-anyone could join
    • Haymarket Riot-someone threw a pipe bomb and killed many people. The KOL were blamed. This labor union will disappear.
  • 7. Labor Unions
    • The American Federation of Labor replaced the Knights of Labor.
    • It is more organized.
    • In 1950 it merged with another union, and today the AFL/CIO is one of the largest labor unions.
  • 8. Government reaction to labor unions
    • During the Gilded Age, the government DID NOT care about workers needs or concerns.
    • They were forced to get back to work.
    • Those politicians wanted money and needed people working.
  • 9. Robber Barons
    • Not only was government corrupt, but you have the rise of big businesses.
    • The 4 key robber barons were:
    • Andrew Carnegie-Steel industry
    • John D. Rockefeller-Oil industry
    • J.P. Morgan-Bank industry
    • C. Vanderbilt-Railroads
  • 10. Terms of industrialization
    • Monopoly-this is when one person has complete control of an industry.
    • Trust-this was the practice of fixing prices. So everything cost the same. This is against the law today.
  • 11. Horizontal integration
    • This was a business practice used the the industrialist. It is when similar companies merge together. Can you think of similar companies that could merge and be one big company?
  • 12. Vertical Integration
    • Also a business practice of the Gilded Age.
    • It is when one company takes over another company. They do not have to be the same type of company.