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  • Discuss Voltaire’s quote. Agree or disagree? How does it relate to what we learned in Unit 4?
  • Alliances were based on: common culture (language, history, traditions), shared borders, similar political agenda, trade agreements, and overseas interests (colonies and raw materials).Bosnia and Herzegovina had been part of Serbia until it was annexed by Austria/Hungary in 1908. The Serbians were not thrilled about it, and they formed groups like the one responsible for killing Archduke Ferdinand (top right), who was in Sarajevo, the Bosnian capital, when he was assassinated by GavriloPrincip, a member of the Serbian anarchist group, the Black Hand. Austria then declared war on Serbia in July of 1914, and the Great War had begun.
  • Top right, “Lady Germany”. Think the “Statue of Liberty”, but with a sword instead of a torch, and pursuit of war instead of pursuit of freedom. Below: the automatic rifle, first used by the British in 1914; Below right: one of the earliest tanks, used by the Germans
  • Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman EmpireAllies (Entente): Russia, France, Britain, Serbia, Italy (after 1915), United States
  • Top right: a WWI cemetery in France. Bottom right: the Treaty of Versailles is signed and ratified on June 28, 1919.
  • In the Muslim Brotherhood’s belief system, the Quran and Sunni Islam constitute a perfect way of life and social and political organization that Allah has set out for man. Islamic governments must be based on this system and eventually unified in a Caliphate. The Muslim Brotherhood's goal, as stated by Brotherhood founder Hassan al-Banna was to reclaim Islam's manifest destiny, an empire, stretching from Spain to Indonesia. It preaches that Islam inspires man to strive for social justice, the eradication of poverty and corruption, and political freedom to the extent allowed by the laws of Islam.
  • And yet ironically, Hitler despised Communism and Stalin hated Nazi Socialism (Fascism). The two forms of government were obviously more alike politically than either would like to admit. Where Fascism and Communism differ, however, is a matter of simple economics: Fascism seeks to empower the wealthy and the elite to stay in power, while Communism’s whole goal is to create one Working Class with all wealth shared by citizens of the state. Sadly, both tried to achieve their goals through ruthless political violence and brutal manipulation of the masses.

Transcript

  • 1. “It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.”  ~Voltaire
    Unit 4 Test Review:
    Ww2
    WW1
  • 2. How to Prepare for your Test:
    Complete the Student Guides from the lessons in Unit 4 (print them out!)
    Complete:
    ALL the Unit 4 Checkpoints and Quizzes!!
    Read the Study GuideI’m pushing out now
    This is an OPEN NOTE TEST!!
    ASK QUESTIONS!!
  • 3. The Test
    Unit 4 Test – PART I- Worth 63 Points
    There are 21 multiple choice questions
    You have unlimited time to take the exam
    You may RETAKE the exam for a higher score (no reason to fail!)
    It is “DUE” by Sunday, April 10th at midnight: DON’T WAIT TO TAKE IT!
    • Unit 4 Test – PART II– Worth 10 Points
    • 4. OPTION #1 – The ONE PARAGRAPH ESSAY!
    • 5. Use the Essay Writing Guide to complete the essay
    Topic: “In what ways were Hitler and Mussolini
    similar in their philosophies and actions?
  • 6. Part 2: Option #2! (instead of the essay)
    Make a fun, creative BIOGRAPHICAL POSTERabout one of the following people:
    Woodrow Wilson
    Vladimir Lenin
    Joseph Stalin
    Franklin Roosevelt
    Winston Churchill
    Adolf Hitler
    Benito Mussolini
    Mahatma Gandhi
    Go to: www.glogster.com
  • 7. Outbreak of World War I
    The Balkan “Powder Keg”
  • 8. Nationalism and Militarism: Major Causes of World War I
    • A sense of NATIONALUNITY and PRIDE:
    • 9. Fueled Rivalries between European nations
    (competition to be the #1 country)
    • Encouraged Nations to expand their Empires
    (conquering lands and adding colonies)
    • GROWING MILITARISM in Europe led to:
    • 10. Built up larger armies
    • 11. Stockpiled powerful weapons
    • 12. Researched new technology to
    perfect the art of modern warfare
  • 13. A War of Alliances: Match the Countries!
    Central Powers
    (Bad Guys)
    RUSSIA
    GERMANY
    AUSTRIA-HUNGARY
    SERBIA
    FRANCE
    BULGARIA
    ITALY
    BRITAIN
    OTTOMAN EMPIRE
    UNITED STATES
    The Allies
    (Good Guys)
  • 14. WWI: A LONG and TOTAL WAR…
    Most Europeans believed the war would end quickly, and involve only a few countries…
    However, it LASTED MUCH LONGER than expected and dragged on and on
    WHY?
    More countries decided to join the war, both to help their allies and for personal gain
    Battles were BOGGED DOWN IN TRENCH WARFARE
    No country had a clear upper hand in the war…
    • THE RESULT:
    • 15. Countries had to commit to TOTAL WAR:
    • 16. 1. Involves every citizen
    • 17. 2. Requires increased industrial production
    • 18. 3. Nations must use every resource available
    • 19. Led to MAJORCHANGES:
    • 20. Women joined the workforce
    • 21. Govt’s took control over their nations’ economies
    • 22. “Planned” economies replaced Capitalism
  • TheUnited States enters the War
    At the start of the war, America wanted to STAY OUT of fighting
    It was a EUROPEAN WAR, and not our problem
    THEN…
    In 1915, a German U-Boat sunk the LUSITANIA, a defenseless passenger ship: 118 Americans died
    WOODROW WILSON used this as the main reason to join the Allies in 1917
    Part of his FOURTEEN POINTS for PEACE:
    An end to SECRET DIPOLAMCY
    Freedom of the SEAS
    New association of world nations:
    LEAGUE OF NATIONS
  • 23. World War 1 comes to an END (Cease-Fire: Nov. 11,1918)
    By the end of the “Great War”:
    Millions of soldiers and civilians died (most of any war to date)
    The Economies of many European nations were RUINED
    THE TREATY of VERSAILLES:
    The Allies wanted to PUNISH and BLAME Germany for the war:
    Created the League of Nations (though it did not accept all of Wilson’s 14 Points…)
    The Treaty’s “War-Guilt” clause angered Germans
  • 24. The Russian Revolutions of 1917
    The Revolution led to a humiliating defeat of Russia by Germany, and the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II. The door was now open…
    Vladimir Lenin had a vision for Russia: he believed that Professional revolutionaries would seize power for the working class
    In 1917, the Russian government was taken over by the Bolshevik Party(Communists)
    Led by Lenin, the Soviets (Workers Unions) established a new SOCIALIST government partially based on the ideas of Karl Marx:
    Suppression of religion
    Elimination of political enemies
    Government takeover of land and factories
  • 25. Joseph Stalin takes over as Leader of Soviet Russia
    • After Vladimir Lenin died in 1924, the Bolshevik Party needed a new leader…
    • 26. Joseph Stalin had been the General Secretary of the Communist Party under Lenin
    • 27. He ruthlessly eliminated any internal opposition to his power (exiled Leon Trotsky)
    • 28. By 1929, he was in full command of the Soviet Union and the Red Army
    • 29. He launched the first 5 YEAR PLANto improve Russia’s Society and Economy:
    • 30. COLLECTIVIAZTION of FARMS
    • 31. ACCELERATED INDUSTRIAL PRODUCITION
    • 32. It worked: Russia’s industries GREW rapidly
    • 33. In the process, however, millions were sent to penal labor camps, exiled or killed.
  • INDIA andEGYPTtake different paths to Independence
    1922
    • EGYPT:
    • 34. After World War I, nationalists in Egypt won their independence from Britain.
    • 35. In 1928, an Egyptian teacher formed the Muslim Brotherhood, dedicated to ending Western influence and creating a government based on COMPLETE ISLAMIC RULE (Theocracy: religion = law)
    1947
    INDIA:
    Had been controlled by Great Britain since 1858
    Indians were treated unequally under “The Raj”, wanted greater freedom and political power
    Gandhi: Non-violent civil disobedience = "the strength and courage to suffer without retaliation”
  • 36. Zionism and the Battle for the Holy Land
    Israel and Palestine are important to Jews and Muslims for political and religious reasons
    Jews claim the land as their ancestral home
    Palestinian Arab farmers had lived their for centuries
    Zionism – to establish an independent country for Jews around the world to return to and call home
    Led to disagreements between Arabs and Jews over control of the Holy Land
    Israel in 1947
    Palestinian settlements
  • 37. The Great Depressionand FDR’s “New Deal”
    RELIEF,
    RECOVERY
    REFORM!
    Franklin Roosevelt’s NEW DEAL (1933 – 36): programs designed to pull the U.S. out of the Great Depression
  • 38. FASCISM and COMMUNISM
    To stay in power, the government must have ALL the power.
  • 39. Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf: the writing was on the wall…
    The title means
    “My Struggle” in German
    Written by Hitler while he was in prison in 1924 for attempting to overthrow the German government
    In it, Hitler argues:
    Germans were a “Master Race”
    Jews were to blame for Germany’s problems
    Germans were destined to lead the world
    Though the book was ignored outside of Germany, Hitler became famous, and his Nazi Party started to gain more and more political power…
  • 40. Coming up in Unit 5…
    WORLD WAR II (1939-1945)!