As a warm up, you can ask what is the significance of each quote, and how it applies to what we studied in this unit.
Generate a discussion based on what they’ve learned in the Unit, both the pros and cons of the Industrial Revolution:Examples: PROS - increased populations, food and textiles; swifter travel and communication; CONS - greater divide between rich and poor; Colonization of Africa, India and Asia for material resources and labor; the ushering in of “Modern Warfare”. It certainly made the world “smaller”!
Top right: England in 1900 – Dark green areas are densest areas of industrialization (London, Birmingham, Manchester)Bottom right: An English cotton mill, ca. 1820.
These machines all improved upon each other, with the goal being to increase the speed and efficiency of the cloth-making process by creating devices that could spin yarn faster and would operate the loom more quickly than a person could by hand. The results were amazing: one person operating the spinning jenny could spin as much yarn as 15 people in the same amount of time.
On the left, Watt’s steam engine. Middle: Fulton’s first steamship. On the right, the “Belle of Louisville”, built in 1914.
Telephone: Bell, Phonograph: Edison, Dynamite: Alfred Nobel, Telegraph: Samuel Morse, Wireless Telegraph (Radio) Guglielmo Marconi (though many claim Nikola Tesla beat him to it a few years earlier)
How have working conditions improved since the early 20th century? How did unions successfullyhelp the working conditions in factories? Where in the world do children and adults still experience many of these same work-related problems?
Match the Description of the Thinker with his Ideas. Mill = Utilitarianism; Marx = Communism; Darwin = Evolution/Natural Selection; Owen = Socialist Utopia
Top right: a London movie theater in 1910! Bottom right: a poster advertising Coney Island, NY in 1897!Bottom left: Louis Pasteur, the Father of Microbiology. Next to him is an electron microscopic image of the anthrax bacteria.
Open up a discussion with chat privileges. Have the students come up with a concise definition of “Imperialism”. It is, according to the Dictionary of Human Geography: “"the creation and maintenance of an unequal economic, cultural, and territorial relationship, usually between states and often in the form of an empire, based on domination and subordination."
“Sepoys” were Indian soldiers, hired as mercenaries to fight for the British East India Company. Their rebellion in 1857 sent shockwaves back to England. The decision by Queen Victoria to take direct control of India and cut out the middle man (East India Company) was copied in Africa and parts of Asia as well. Bottom left: the new “British Imperial Sepoy” from ca. 1920. Next to it, a drawing of the Opium War of 1840.
If you have time, you could close with a discussion of how the rise of industrialization, nationalism, imperialism and colonialism that we covered in Unit 3 all contributed to the outbreak of World War in 1914. Was such a war inevitable with so many countries all scrambling for power, land and resources?
“Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains.” ~Karl Marx “In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise have most effectively prevailed.” ~Charles Darwin Unit 3 Test Review:
How to Prepare for your Test: Complete the Student Guides from the lessons in Unit 3 (print them out!) Complete all the Unit 3 Checkpoints and Quizzes!! Read the Study GuideI’m pushing out now This is an OPEN NOTE TEST!! ASK QUESTIONS!!
The Test Unit 3 Test – PART I– Worth 70 Points There are 20 multiple choice questions You have unlimited time to take the exam You may RETAKE the exam for a higher score There is one short answer question in this test. In a short paragraph, describe the working and living conditions that working-class people experienced during the Industrial Revolution.
Unit 3 Test – PART II– THERE IS NO PART 2!
How did the Industrial Revolution change the world?
Grandma got nothin’ on these guys! Innovations that increased the production of cloth in the 18th century: SPINNING JENNY, 1770 FLYING SHUTTLE, 1733 WATER FRAME, 1769
Robert Fulton and the Steamship Applied the Steam Engine that was invented by James Watt in 1775 (powered the paddles) First steamship, called the Clermont, built in 1807 Traveled 300 miles in 32 hours! Forever changed the way people traveled on water Transportation and travel increased dramatically! The Clermont
The Second Industrial Revolution Started during the middle of 19th century Improved upon earlier technology and inventions Used chemistry and physics to build more advanced machines ASSEMBLY LINES increased the speed of factory production New sources of energy were discovered and used for power: KEROSENE GASOLINE ELECTRICTY
INVENTIONS that Changed the World! Match the invention with the Inventor! Edison Bell Morse Nobel Marconi Dynamite, 1866 Phonograph, 1877 Telephone, 1876 Telegraph, 1837 Wireless radio, 1896
The Human Cost of Industrialization By the end of the 19th century, England and America were highly industrialized, however… While the rich factory owners got richer… Child labor was used (and abused) Factory injuries were common Cities became overcrowded and polluted Long workdays, little pay, lousy working conditions for the lower class BUT, businesses needed more educated people = larger MIDDLE CLASS
MATCH THEM! New ways of Thinking :Society and Humanity John Stuart Mill He argued that humans share a common ancestor with apes, also argued that Natural Selection = “Survival of the Fittest” He believed that people could build a Utopian (perfect) society through Socialist ideals He said that Capitalism would fail because workers would revolt and create a Communist society without rich and poor, only the “working class” sharing wealth. He believed that governments should only do those things which guarantee the greatest freedom and enjoyment for their people = Utilitarianism (do as you please, as long as you don’t hurt others) Karl Marx Charles Darwin Robert Owen
The Benefits of Industrialization:Increased Health and Leisure
By the end of the 19th century, scientists had discover GERMS! (bacteria and viruses)
LOUIS PASTEUR, French microbiologist who created vaccines for rabies and anthrax
Discovered new ways to fight diseases! (heating milk to kill bacteria = pasteurization!)
European Imperialism:Africa and Asia Beware! What is IMPERIALISM? What were countries like England, France, the Netherlands and Belgium hoping to accomplish in Africa and Asia? Acquiring RAW MATERIALS (for industry) Promising PROSPERITY to citizens back home (at the expense of colonized people) Zeal for MISSIONARY WORK (souls to save) From 1885 – 1914, nearly 100 million people were conquered and taken over by European countries Great Britain took over all of India Africa was carved up by 7 different European nations: populations grew, but natural resources, traditions and culture were lost, as well as self-rule.
So how did European nations justify their overseas Empires? Europeans believed they were more civilized and “superior” to all others Industrialization needed to be spread throughout the world Belief in “Social Darwinism”: Survival of the Fittest…countries! A new wave of Nationalism made them want to grow stronger by defeating weaker countries, building their armies and increasing their industrial output
India and China: meet GREAT BRITAIN! The British East India Company had controlled India for over a century, until…. The Sepoy Mutiny of 1857 proved that the company had lost its grip on India So, Queen Victoria ordered that the British Crown take DIRECT CONTROL OF INDIA = “The Raj” (lasted until 1947) In China, the British were buying tea, silk and porcelain, China only bought silver To balance the trade, England started to sell OPIUM, a highly addictive drug China was turning into a country full of drug addicts, so they made Opium illegal, then blocked British trading ships 1840 – 1st Opium War, China lost Britain now had free trade in China and 5 open ports Part of the British Empire, 1914
China and Japan move forward… China - Qing Dynasty ended with revolt in 1911 Sun Yat-sen– (1866 – 1925) Leader of the Nationalist Party, GOALS: Drive out the Qing Dynasty Create a Democratic Republic of China Guarantee economic security for China After his death, his followers split into two rival parties: Communists vs. Nationalists Japan – becomes a major military and industrial nation The Meiji Restoration – ended rule of shoguns in 1867 For Imperial Expansion, Japan needed: More natural resources for industry To open new overseas markets for trade Modernization, especially weapons It worked: by 1900 the Japanese Empire was ready to rumble!