Independence and Nationalism.pptPresentation Transcript
Latin American Independence Movements 2.28.2011
So, what’s going on???
In 1800, most of Latin America was made up of colonies ruled by Spain and Portugal.
Inspired by events in North America and Europe (mainly the American and French revolutions), Latin American colonists were ready to fight for independence.
A few to look at
Leader - Toussaint-Louverture
Haiti was the first Latin American colony to gain its independence.
Toussaint was a former slave.
France regained control of Haiti, but eventually gave up the colony.
Leader - Francisco de Miranda
Met Jefferson, Madison, and Paine
First in South America to rebel
What do these places have in common??
Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador, Bolivia
All were led by - Simón Bolívar
Known as The Liberator
Studied Locke, Voltaire, and Montesquieu
Bolivia was named to honor him
Argentina, Chile, Peru
Leader - José de San Martín
Parents were peninsulares; mother was Spanish nobility
Led Army of the Andes over the Andes Mountains to liberate Chile
Where is Latin America anyway?
The term Latin America is used to describe the vast area in the Western Hemisphere south of the United States that includes Mexico, Central America, South America, and islands in the West Indies.
The Big five
These 5 countries all had colonies in Latin America
When and Why???
By 1830 most of Latin America became independent.
They were inspired to fight by the American and French revolutions
Haiti was first go become independent
Sounds great, Right?
Well, not really
Although most Latin American colonies had won their independence, democracy was not established in many areas. The reason is that these new Latin American nations had no history of electing representatives, passing laws, or charting their political future. What was the result of this?
The result was that through the first half of the nineteenth century, many governments in Latin America became military dictatorships.
Didn’t America do the same thing and it worked out great?
The English monarchs allowed their colonies in North America a degree of self-rule. The American colonists, therefore, had some experience in ruling themselves. Spanish and Portuguese monarchs did not allow their colonies to govern themselves. Latin American colonists, therefore, had no experience in ruling themselves.
What about Mexico?
Father Hidalgo sees suffering of Indians and mestizos. He admires the ideas of Enlightenment philosophers and the French Revolution.
Father Hidalgo gives a speech in Dolores that stirs Indians and mestizos to revolt. Creoles join forces with Spain against them in a civil war.
Father Morales leads Mexicans after Hidalgo’s death. Creole officer Iturbide defeats Morelos and his troops.
Unrest in Spain prompts Creoles to support the cause of independence from Spain. Led by Iturbide, Mexico declares its independence.
Nationalism in Europe 2.28.2011 And now we’re going to shift gears a little bit here
So, What’s the little guy up to?
Napoleon’s conquest of northern Italy created feelings of nationalism in the people who inhabited the Italian Peninsula. They began to experience a new sense of unity in their shared dislike of being ruled by the French.
What are the other leaders up to?
And when Napoleon invaded Germany what did the German people think?
People felt a new sense of unity in their opposition to the French. They began to take pride in their heritage and spirit as Germans.
Otto von Bismarck
Goal: Make Prussia a powerful state
Overcome Prussia’s rival Austria •
Create a confederation of German states with Prussia having the most power
Give all male citizens the right to vote in a new parliament, but keep the power in the monarchy
Goal: Draw the remaining German states away from Austria
Start a war with France
Use German dislike of the French to draw smaller German states to Prussia’s side
After Germany captured Paris, Bismarck declared the birth of the German Empire.
Prussia’s king became Kaiser Wilhelm I.
France was forced to pay Germany five billion francs and turn over Alsace and Lorraine, two mostly German-speaking provinces.
Why did Bismarck want Alsace and Lorraine??
They were rich in iron and coal, which Bismarck wanted for German industry.
What did Germany do with the money and land taken from France?
Germany wanted to be a military and industrial power
Germany introduced educational innovation with government-sponsored technical schools.
German students learned to do scientific research that prepared them to develop new ideas and products.
Germany produced new machines of war.
A little Vocab:
militarism - the glorification of military might; glorifying the military might of one’s nation
Militarism increased in European nations in the decades after German unification.
The unification of Italy and Germany changed the map of Europe. The two new nations did away with many little kingdoms, duchies, and city-states. Growing feelings of nationalism had caused much of this change.
Nationalism - the strong sense of attachment or belonging to one’s own country