Unit 1 : Review CupidA Spanish galleon, Martin Lutherca. 1600 Louis XIV of France
What mo(vated European Explora(on during the Age of Discovery? • A – Finding a newer and faster sea route to China and India • B – Conquering new lands and people, spreading Christianity • C – A spirit of intellectual curiosity • D – Trading gold, spices and other resources to get rich and powerful • E – All of the Above
Prince Henry and the dawn of Discovery • Portuguese sailor and explorer, born in 1394 • Set up a “school” for navigators and map-‐ makers in 1427 • Set his sights on AFRICA • Wanted to ﬁnd a route around Africa to Asia • Helped establish the ﬁrst slave trade between
Two Important Sailing Innova1ons THE CARAVEL THE COMPASS Invented by the Portuguese in Earliest known use of it was in the 15th century China, ca. 250 BC Light, maneuverable sailing ship First used by European sailors in Used a TRIANGULAR SAIL that the 13th century allowed ships to move AGAINST Uses a magnetized lodestone THE WIND! Enabled voyages beyond coasts Allowed for greater speed as well Helps sailors find DIRECTION! VS.
English Colonies in • North America: Virginia Company established Jamestown in 1607 • Trading site for gold, furs and tobacco. Lasted unDl 1705. • 1620 – The __________________ landed at Plymouth Rock, Mass. • 102 colonists came, looking for RELIGIOUS FREEDOM • We call them Puritans or __________________. • They were persecuted by the Church of England for their Protestant (Calvinist) beliefs.
The MAYFLOWER COMPACT, Nov. • 12 t1620 “Having undertaken a voyage to plant he ﬁrst colony in the Northern parts of Virginia, do by these present solemnly and mutually in the presence of God, and one of another, covenant and combine ourselves together into a civil body politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute, and frame such just and equal laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions, and oﬃces, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience.” • Why is this document so important? The Original copy!
• What kinds of things were traded back and forth in theColumbian Exchange?• What were the positives and negatives for each side?
SLAVERY comes to Africa and the New World… Countries like Portugal, England and Spain traded guns in Africa to local chiefs for slaves and captured prisoners. Slaves made the MIDDLE PASSAGE from Africa to the West Indies. There, the slaves worked in sugar cane planta(ons, which led to higher European demand and increased slave trade across the AtlanDc
The Protestant Reforma1on How much • Which of the following was a CAUSE of for no Purgatory? the Protestant Reformation: • A – Church clergy were abusing their power • B – The poor were being neglected while bishops and cardinals grew wealthier • C – Kings and Popes fought back and forth over who was more powerful • D – The sale of indulgences to pay for Church building projects • E – All of the Above
AOer 100 years of growing hatred… Thirty Year’s War! (1618 – 1648)• The Cause: HRE Ferdinand II wanted to make Bohemia Catholic; it was Protestant.• Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists all fought each other in GERMANY, the Holy Roman Empire fell apart and was divided up into small principalities.• So: France, Spain, Sweden and Denmark all tried to snatch parts of Germany!• The Result: more then 3 million Europeans died. FRANCE won BIG TIME!
The Peace of Westphalia and the Results of Reforma0on in Europe • The Peace of Westphalia (1648) ended the Thirty Years War • Spain, Germany and Sweden were all weakened by war, loss of land • FRANCE grew in size and power after the war: centralized • New borders were drawn, oﬃcial “countries” were established • Absolute Monarchies became the new way to govern • What does it mean to be an “Absolute Monarch”? • What is the “Divine Right of Kings”?
Two Absolute Monarchs: • LOUIS XIV -‐ FRANCE Peter the Great -‐ RUSSIA • Ruled France for 72 years: Ruled for 42 years (d. 1725) The “Sun King” (d. 1715) Through military victories , he • Ended Feudalism, made created the Russian Empire, the Paris the oﬃcial Capital largest in the world at the time • Controlled every aspect of Modernized Russia by making it French government more “European”, brought ships, • Built the Palace of technology and new ideas to Russia Versailles as a symbol of his wealth and power Built St. Petersburg, and made it • “I am the State.” – Louis XIV his new capital
The ENGLISH CIVIL WAR: King – No King – King Again! • King Charles I of England refused to give in to Parliaments demands • He claimed Divine Right to Absolute Rule – Parliament declared war! • Charles I lost the Civil War, was arrested and beheaded in 1649 • Parliament’s leader, Oliver Cromwell, took over as “Lord Protector” until his death in 1658 – He was a Puritan: NO FUN L • Parliament restored the Monarchy in 1660, allowing Charles II to be king • England was back where it started, almost… • Parliament was now calling the shots!
The Glorious Revolu1on -‐ 1688 • King James II of England was Catholic, so was his new son… • Parliament wanted to keep England Protestant, so it called on William III of Holland to ﬁght James II • James II ran away like a little girl… • William and Mary become King and Queen of England • Parliament has major pull now, so: • ENGLISH BILL of RIGHTS in 1689 • What did it guarantee?
Unit 2 Review
The Scientific Revolution• What was the Scientific Revolution?• What Spurred the Scientific Revolution?
Ptolemy vs Copernicus Geocentric – The Earth is Heliocentric Theory - Thethe Center of the Universe Sun is the Center of the Universe
Galileo Galilee Designed New ScienDﬁc devices Thermometer Telescope Conﬁrmed Copernicus’ Theory Silenced by the Church The InquisiDon condemned Galileo in 1633 because his teachings clashed with the Bible, which read: "God ﬁxed the earth upon its foundaDon, not to be moved forever." Galileo was rehabilitated a_er 359 years. In 1992 of Galileo, the Italian astronomer persecuted by the Church for teaching that the Earth revolved around the sun.
Sir Isaac Newton• Devloped the “Theory of Laws of MoDon Universal Gravity” First law (the law of inerDa): A body in moDon will stay in moDon, and a body at • Discovered White light was rest will remain at rest, unless acted on by comprised of multiple a force. spectrums of light Second law: The force of an object is • Developed Calculus equal to its mass Dmes its acceleraDon. • The Principia Third law: For every acDon there is an equal and opposite reacDon. * Proved the universe follows a set of predictable rules.
The Enlightenment Locke -‐ It is the Montesquieu -‐ governments 3 Branches of Voltaire -‐ God Hobbes – job to protect Government – had made the Humans are the natural Judicial, universe then naturally rights of life, LegislaDve, le_ it to run on violent and liberty, and ExecuDve. its own, Kings Selﬁsh property. Inﬂuenced the “should” be U.S. governed by ConsDtuDon Reason Rousseau– Humans are naturally Good and Society Corrupts them
American Revolution Causes Britain’s Debt: Fixes? Taxes: Sugar Act of 1764 Stamp Act of 1765 ProclamaDon of 1763 No RepresentaDon in Parliament Boston Massacre Intolerable Acts Mass. MiliDa and the BriDsh Regulars ﬁre upon each other on Lexington Green
The New America• Articles of Confederation – – Passed in 1781 – WEAK central government – No power to… • Collect taxes, force states to follow federal law, establish an army, print money – Much confusion among states – no unity or uniformity
The U.S. Constitution Power is shared between federal and state governments SeparaDon of Powers – Who originally came up with this idea? Checks and Balances system What type of legislature did the ConsDtuDon create? How many parts? It established a government based on a document reﬂecDng the will of the people
The French Revolution
Robespierre Reign of Terror• Robespierre – Ruled with the Council of Public Safety in 1793• Reign of Terror –• 300,000 arrested; 17,000 executed• Robespierre eventually executed
France Under Napoleon Bonaparte Set up tax collecDon system Est. a naDonal bank Fired corrupt oﬃcials Set up public schools Restored power to Cath. Church Napoleonic code: uniform set of laws
Napoleon in Power Appointed to lead French Army in 1796 by the Directory 1798 – Mediterranean Campaign (Defeat which Napoleon gloriﬁes) 1799 Coup De Ta – Napoleon in Power 1804 Napoleon the Emperor Meanwhile European CoaliDons form to crush the RevoluDon Britain sole hope of Europe 1807 Peninsula Disaster 1810 Russia Campaign falls apart – Napoleon’s most serious Defeat 1813 Napoleon exiled to Elba 1814 100 Days – and Defeat at Waterloo
Revolutions in Latin America HaiD Leader -‐ Toussaint-‐Louverture ○ HaiD was the ﬁrst LaDn American colony to gain its independence. ○ Toussaint was a former slave. ○ France regained control of HaiD, but eventually gave up the colony. Mexico Leader -‐ Father Hidalgo ○ Against Spain – Grimo de Dolores Fails Mob vs Wealthy MesDzos ○ Executed in 1811 Why RevoluDons fail?
Nationalism Unites!• Italy – – Divided into small principalities – Young Italy 1831– • Giuseppe Mazzini – Pushes for Italian Rule of Italians; More Power for the People, Unification – Giuseppe Garibaldi – Eventually Unites Italy under King Victor Emmanuel
Nationalism Unites! Germany – Omo Von Bismarck – Chancellor of Prussia in 1862 German Choice – Prussia or Austria? Prussia forces war upon Austria ○ Using Railroads and new weaponry they defeat Austria Bismarck Rules with an Iron Fist Bismarck teases war with France – ○ Militarism draws other kingdoms to Prussia creaDng a united Germany
“Workers of the world unite; you have nothing to lose but your chains.” ~Karl Marx “In the long history of humankind (and animal kind, too) those who learned to collaborate and improvise have most eﬀecDvely prevailed.” ~Charles Darwin Unit 3 Review:
How did the Industrial Revolu0on change the world? Social Changes Economic Changes PoliDcal Changes
The Industrial RevoluDon begins in England • Started in the early 1700’s • Advances in agriculture led to a rise in populaDon, less farmers required to feed the people • ALSO: • Numerous Rivers (water wheels, transportaDon) • Strong banking system (to build factories, start businesses) • Many available laborers (to work in the mills, operate machines and make parts) • Started with TEXTILE MILLS • (comon>yarn>fabric>stuﬀ!)
Grandma got nothin’ InnovaDons that increased the on these guys!producDon of cloth in the 18th century: FLYING SHUTTLE, 1733 SPINNING JENNY, 1770 WATER FRAME, 1769
Robert Fulton and the Steamship • Applied the Steam Engine that was invented by James Watt in 1775 (powered the paddles)• First steamship, called the Clermont, built in 1807• Traveled 300 miles in 32 hours!• Forever changed the way people traveled on water• Transportation and travel increased dramatically! The Clermont
The Second Industrial Revolu(on • Started during the middle of 19th century• Improved upon earlier technology and inventions• Used chemistry and physics to build more advanced machines• ASSEMBLY LINES increased the speed of factory production• New sources of energy were discovered and used for power:• KEROSENE• GASOLINE• ELECTRICTY
INVENTIONS that Changed the World! • Match the invention with the Inventor! A. Edison B. Bell C. Morse Phonograph, 1877 Dynamite, 1866 D. Nobel Telephone, 1876 E. Marconi Telegraph, 1837 Wireless radio, 1896
The Human Cost of Industrializa0on By the end of the 19th century, England and America were highly industrialized, however… While the rich factory owners got richer… Child labor was used (and abused) Factory injuries were common CiDes became overcrowded and polluted Long workdays, limle pay, lousy working condiDons for the lower class BUT, businesses needed more educated people = larger MIDDLE CLASS
MATCH THEM! New ways of Thinking : Society and Humanity John Stuart He argued that humans share a common Mill ancestor with apes, also argued that Natural SelecDon = “Survival of the Fimest” He believed that people could build a Utopian (perfect) society through Socialist Karl ideals Marx He said that Capitalism would fail because workers would revolt and create a Communist society without rich and poor, only the “working class” sharing wealth. Charles He believed that governments should only do those things which guarantee the Darwin greatest freedom and enjoyment for their people = U0litarianism (do as you please, as long as you don’t hurt others) Robert Owen
The Beneﬁts of Industrializa(on: Increased Health and Leisure • By the end of the 19th century, scienDsts had discover GERMS! • By the end of the 19th century, millions of (bacteria and viruses) (mostly) MIDDLE CLASS Americans and • LOUIS PASTEUR, French Europeans enjoyed • INCREASED LEISURE TIME microbiologist who created • This led to a demand for vaccines for rabies and anthrax MASS ENTERTAINMENT ! • Discovered new ways to ﬁght • People now had the wealth and the free diseases! (heaDng milk to kill Dme to enjoy things like: bacteria = pasteuriza0on!) • Theaters, SporDng Events, Concerts, • Bemer medicine = bemer health! Movies, Carnivals and…VACATIONS!
European Imperialism: Africa and Asia Beware! What is IMPERIALISM? What were countries like England, France, the Netherlands and Belgium hoping to accomplish in Africa and Asia? Acquiring RAW MATERIALS (for industry) Promising PROSPERITY to ciDzens back home (at the expense of colonized people) Zeal for MISSIONARY WORK (souls to save) From 1885 – 1914, nearly 100 million people were conquered and taken over by European countries Great Britain took over all of India Africa was carved up by 7 diﬀerent European naDons: populaDons grew, but natural resources, tradiDons and culture were lost, as well as self-‐rule.
So how did European na(ons jus(fy their overseas Empires? Europeans believed they were more civilized and “superior” to all others IndustrializaDon needed to be spread throughout the world Belief in “Social Darwinism”: Survival of the Fimest…countries! A new wave of NaDonalism made them want to grow stronger by defeaDng weaker countries, building their armies and increasing their industrial output
India and China: meet GREAT BRITAIN! The BriDsh East India Company had controlled India for over a century, unDl…. The Sepoy MuDny of 1857 proved that the company had lost its grip on India So, Queen Victoria ordered that the BriDsh Crown take DIRECT CONTROL OF INDIA = “The Raj” (lasted unDl 1947) In China, the BriDsh were buying tea, silk and porcelain, China only bought silver Part of the British Empire, 1914 To balance the trade, England started to sell OPIUM, a highly addic(ve drug China was turning into a country full of drug addicts, so they made Opium illegal, then blocked BriDsh trading ships 1840 – 1st Opium War, China lost Britain now had free trade in China and 5 open ports
China and Japan move forward… China -‐ Qing Dynasty ended with revolt in 1911 Sun Yat-‐sen – (1866 – 1925) Leader of the NaDonalist Party, GOALS: ○ Drive out the Qing Dynasty ○ Create a DemocraDc Republic of China ○ Guarantee economic security for China ○ A_er his death, his followers split into two rival parDes: Communists vs. NaDonalists Japan – becomes a major military and industrial naDon The Meiji RestoraDon – ended rule of shoguns in 1867 ○ For Imperial Expansion, Japan needed: ○ More natural resources for industry ○ To open new overseas markets for trade ○ ModernizaDon, especially weapons
“It is forbidden to kill; therefore all murderers are punished unless they kill in large numbers and to the sound of trumpets.” ~Voltaire Unit 4 Review:
Outbreak of World War I Military Alliances in Europe, based on: Who was assassinated? Where? What two countries started the war? The Balkan “Powder Keg”
Na0onalism and Militarism: Major Causes of World War I • A sense of NATIONAL UNITY and PRIDE: • Fueled Rivalries between European naDons (compeDDon to be the #1 country) • Encouraged NaDons to expand their Empires (conquering lands and adding colonies) • GROWING MILITARISM in Europe led to: • Built up larger armies • Stockpiled powerful weapons • Researched new technology to perfect the art of modern warfare
A War of Alliances: Match the Countries! RUSSIA GERMANY AUSTRIA-‐HUNGARY SERBIA FRANCE BULGARIA ITALY BRITAIN OTTOMAN EMPIRE UNITED STATES
WWI: A LONG and TOTAL WAR… Most Europeans believed the war THE RESULT: would end quickly, and involve Countries had to commit to TOTAL only a few countries… WAR: However, it LASTED MUCH 1. Involves every ciDzen LONGER than expected and 2. Requires increased industrial dragged on and on producDon WHY? 3. NaDons must use every More countries decided to join the resource available war, both to help their allies and Led to MAJOR CHANGES: for personal gain Women joined the workforce Bamles were BOGGED DOWN IN Govt’s took control over their TRENCH WARFARE naDons’ economies No country had a clear upper hand “Planned” economies replaced in the war… Capitalism
The United States enters the War At the start of the war, America wanted to STAY OUT of ﬁghDng It was a EUROPEAN WAR, and not our problem THEN… In 1915, a German U-‐Boat sunk the LUSITANIA, a defenseless passenger ship: 118 Americans died WOODROW WILSON used this as the main reason to join the Allies in 1917 Part of his FOURTEEN POINTS for PEACE: An end to SECRET DIPOLAMCY Freedom of the SEAS New associaDon of world naDons: LEAGUE OF NATIONS
World War 1 comes to an END (Cease-‐ Fire: Nov. 11,1918) By the end of the “Great War”: Millions of soldiers and civilians died (most of any war to date) The Economies of many European naDons were RUINED THE TREATY of VERSAILLES: The Allies wanted to PUNISH and BLAME Germany for the war: Created the League of NaDons (though it did not accept all of Wilson’s 14 Points…) The Treaty’s “War-‐Guilt” clause angered Germans
The Russian Revolu1ons of 1917
Joseph Stalin takes over as Leader of Soviet Russia • • • • • • • • •
INDIA and EGYPT take diﬀerent paths to Independence 1922 1947
Zionism and the Baale for the Holy Land Israel in 1947 Palestinian settlements
The Great Depression and FDR’s “New Deal” CAUSES OF THE GREAT DEPRESSION Decline in Farming Prices The Stock Market Crash of 1929 RELIEF, RECOVERY Bank Failures REFORM! Franklin Roosevelt’s NEW DEAL (1933 – 36): programs designed to pull the U.S. out of the Great Depression
FASCISM and COMMUNISM Both seek to Both try to Both seek eliminate suppress poliDcal Totalitarian Rule poliDcal freedoms opposiDons To stay in power, the government must have ALL the power.
Adolf Hitler’s Mein Kampf: the wriDng was on the wall…
Unit 5 Review: World War 2, The Cold War, and Beyond…
Part 2: OpDon #2! (instead of the essay) Make a fun, creaDve HISTORICAL POSTER about one of the following people or events: – Pearl Harbor – Dwight Eisenhower – The Holocaust – Hiroshima and Nagasaki – John F. Kennedy – The Berlin Wall – Cuban Missile Crisis – Nikita Khrushchev – MarDn Luther King, Jr. Go to: www.glogster.com
The 20th Century: An American Let’s Review what we learned in UNIT 5! Century? IMPORTANT MILITARY EVENTS IMPORTANT SOCIAL/CULTURAL EVENTS IMPORTANT LEADERS of the 20th CENTURY
Causes of WWII Treaty of Versailles – War Guilt Clause – League of NaDons No Power, No Military, Not all countries part, and Slow German Aggression – Push for Sudetenland, Anchluss (“link-‐up”) with Austria, Invasion of Poland Italian Aggression – Invasion of Ethiopia and Albania Japanese Aggression – Invasion of China – Invasion of Southeastern Asia Munich 1938 – Policy of Appeasement
America Joins the War December 7, 1941 – – Japanese bomb Pearl Harbor in order to destroy U.S. Paciﬁc ﬂeet and hmp://www.radiochemistry.org/history/video/ demoralize U.S.A. fdr_infamy.html -‐ Hear the Speech! Guam, Hong Kong, Philippians, Midway, and Wake Island Opposite eﬀect happens: America Stands behind war – America’s Navy becomes Carrier based in the Paciﬁc
Opposing Powers of WW2 v Germany • United States of Americav Italy • United Kingdomv Japanv Vichy • Soviet Union France • Greecev Romania • Chinav Hungary • Francev Bulgaria • Free Poland
Leaders of WW2 England – Winston Churchill United States – Franklin Delano Roosevelt France – Charles De Gaulle Soviet Union – Joseph Stalin China – Mao Zedong
Evil Leaders of WW2 Germany – Adolf Hitler Italy – Benito Mussolini Japan – Hideki Tojo
The Holocaust The Holocaust a.k.a. The Final SoluDon What was the Holocaust? – Hitler blamed the Jewish Race for German poverty and the loss of WWI (a scapegoat) – Horrors of the Camps Dr. Mengele conducted cruel, inhumane experiments on Jewish people SystemaDc Killing of Millions of : Jews, Homosexuals, Gypsies, Poles, Russians, PoliDcal Adolf Prisoners, People with DisabiliDes, Mentally Disabled Eichmann (all “geneDcally inferior”) main “architect” Outcomes of the Final Solution” – About 5-‐7 million total died in death camps
The Bomb What was the Bomb? Why drop the Atomic bomb? – A_er the invasion of Iwo Jima. U.S. Oﬃcials realize An invasion of Japan would cost tens of thousands of American lives Dropped by the “Enola Gay” on Aug 6,1945 – Hiroshima First to be bombed – Nagasaki 3 days later (why drop TWO?) Damage of the Bomb: – Though we dont know exactly how many perished in the bombing, it is esDmated that 140,000 (plus or minus 10,000) had died by the end of December 1945.
Eﬀects of WW2 More people died in WW2 than any other war in History
Other Eﬀects of WW2 New World Powers: – Soviet Union -‐ Great Military Power Land grab: Soviets Control Eastern Europe and push for a spread of Communism – United States – One of the richest countries on Earth United States vows to defend Democracy throughout the world Trials of War Criminals – Tokyo Trials – Japanese oﬃcers put on trial – Nuremburg Trials – Nazi’s put on trial for the horrors of the death camps to judge Nazi leaders for their policies and orders
CreaDng a LasDng Peace FormaDon of the United NaDons – What is the U.N.? Germany Divided: – Germany was divided into 4 sectors following the war -‐ Communist/DemocraDc – Berlin also divided into 4 sectors: U.S., Great Britain, France, and Soviet Union The Divisions of Germany and Berlin Were the “ﬁrst shots ﬁred” in the Cold War
The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc US & the Nations Western [“Iron Curtain”] Democracies GOAL à “Containment”GOAL à spread world-wide of Communism & the Communism eventual collapse of the Communist world. METHODOLOGIES: 1. Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] and political propaganda 2. Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3. Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of peoples in Europe, Asia and the Third World 4. Communist govt. & socialist economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy 5. Bi-Polarization of Europe: [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
U.S. Anti-Communist Policy: CONTAINMENTMain Goal Means Actual Application Offering Supplying economic* Limit the democratic and (and military) aid to spread of capitalist countries to help Communism alternatives to defend them against into Eastern the Soviet Union “swing” countries Europe, Asia (Greece & Turkey) “Truman Doctrine”
President Harry Truman: • “At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.• I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.• I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.• I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” - Speech given to Congress, 1947
The Truman Doctrine takes eﬀect: The Berlin Airli_ • 1948, the Soviet Union blockaded West Berlin, hoping to force a surrender • No supplies could come into West Berlin by land or sea • So…The U.S. began providing supplies to the German ciDzens in West Berlin • How? With planes, LOTS of them • Between 1948-‐1949, nearly 277,000 Take that, missions were ﬂown over West Berlin Communism! • Nearly 2 million tons of goods and supplies were dropped on West Berlin • The Soviet Union’s plan to “starve” West Berlin failed and the blockade was li_ed.
vs. • Warsaw • North Atlan0c Treaty Organiza0on Treaty Organiza0on • Eastern Bloc naDons under Soviet • Started in 1949, sDll acDve control met in Warsaw, Poland to today, with 26 members unite against the West • A mutual defense alliance • Started in 1955 as a response to among Western NaDons NATO • Formed to stop the spread of • A mutual defense alliance among Communism in Europe Communist NaDons • An amack against any • Headquartered in Moscow, along member, was an amack against with military command all members • The OrganizaDon dissolved in 1991 • Members help each other when the Soviet Union collapsed. with ﬁnancial and military aid.
Europe: Cold War “Battleground” The “Iron Curtain”
The Korean War: 1950-1953 • Korea was freed from Japanese rule after WW2… • It was divided along the 38th Parallel for political reasons • China supported North Korea and wanted to make it Communist • The U.S. supported South Korea and wanted to stop the spread of Communism General • North Korea invaded the Douglas MacArthur south in 1950, the U.S. and U.N. declared war • Ended in a stalemate • The RESULT: • COMMUNIST N. KOREA • NON-COMMUNIST S. KOREA
Oct. 1962: CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS No Soviet Wanted quick Missiles in Cuba strikes Fidel Castro: Khrushchev backed JFK: Announced a allowed Russia to down, and U.S. / blockade of Cuba install missile bases Soviet relaDons in Cuba improved a_er 13 Days in October that almost led to NUCLEAR WAR!
The United States: AXer World War 2… The 1950’s was a decade of peace and prosperity in America Birthrates soared as economic conﬁdence grew: THE BABY BOOM! The threat of Communism in America grew as well: THE RED SCARE! (Sen. Joseph McCarthy and the House “Un-‐American” Commimee) By the 1960’s, THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, led by MarDn Luther King, guaranteed equality and freedom for all minoriDes
A New “Post-‐War” EUROPE • • • • • • • •
The SOVIET UNION crumbles, then collapses…
Don’t Mess with the U.S.! R.I.P. SOVIET UNION Oct. 1917 – Dec. 1991
“Wherever you have an eﬃcient government, you have a dictatorship.” ~ Dwight Eisenhower Unit 6 Review:
Let’s Review Unit 6! Important Leaders Important Events Important Changes
La0n America aXer WW2: Economic Problems & IndustrializaDon • CAUSES of Economic Struggles: • TRADE DEFICITS • LACK of INVESTMENT CAPITAL • WIDE GAPS between RICH/POOR • LaDn America was mostly AGRICULTURAL, with centuries of poverty and lack of modernizaDon • THIS LED TO: • MigraDon of millions of farm workers to ciDes • Rising urban unemployment • Overcrowded ciDes
The United States Intervenes in La(n America during the Cold War • More of the same: • U.S. wanted to stop the spread Cause of U.S. Eﬀect of U.S. of Communism, this Dme in LaDn Involvement Involvement America • SO… • U.S. Government backed the Allende’s Rise Military took military overthrow of Socialist in Chile control of Chile President of Chile, Salvador Allende in 1973 • In the 80’s, the CIA supported the Sandinistas take War between Contras and Contras trying to overthrow the control of Sandinistas Nicaragua intensiﬁed Communist Sandinistas • Our military supported the capitalist dictatorship in Figh(ng El Salvador against le_ist “freedom Civil War in El intensiﬁed against Salvador guerrillas in El ﬁghters” Salvador
La1n American Dictators: Augusto Pinochet: General who took over Chile a_er a coup détat overthrew Allende He ruled as dictator with U.S. help from 1973-‐1990 Fidel Castro: Seized power in Cuba in 1959 Set up a Communist state U.S. placed an embargo on Cuba (no Americans in, no Cuban goods out) Juan Peron: Military dictator in ArgenDna Ruled from 1946 – 1974 Very popular wife, Eva (Evita) Avoided making Communism an issue, played to both sides
Organiza0on of American States q Founded in 1948 q MAIN PURPOSE: Provide ways to encourage regional cooperaDon in LaDn America q 35 members, including the United States (Cuba, as of 2009) q Headquartered in Washington, D.C.
The Rise of Mao Zedong
India’s Two Great Leaders • • • • • • • • •
TROUBLES FOR SOUTH ASIA
Causes of the Vietnam war U. S. and South Vietnam: Wanted to stop the spread of Communism in Vietnam North Vietnam: Wanted to take over South Vietnam and make it Communist, by force if need be Vietcong: Pro-‐Communist supporters in S. Vietnam. Used “guerrilla” tacDcs to insDll fear U. S. President Johnson: Wanted to win the war at all costs.
Outcomes of The VIETNAM WAR: ReuniﬁcaDon of North and South Vietnam in 1975 All Vietnam became a Communist Dictatorship (sDll is) Mass Slaughter in Cambodia (nearly 2 million killed)
Changes in EAST ASIA since WW2
AFRICA a_er World War 2 A ConDnent in TransiDon European powers seized colonies in Africa African people lost their freedom Workers exploited Natural resources Apartheid: ruling minority stripped insDtuted policy of racial discriminaDon in S. Africa Beginning around 1960: Many African naDons demanded independence from colonial rulers.
The Origins of the Arab-‐Israeli Conﬂict in the Middle East Palestinian controlled lands in Israel,1946 to 2000
The Middle East and OIL: Challenges Lavish lifestyles Wealth Produced Money made from oil revenue by oil enriches from oil is anger religious powerful elites invested abroad extremists Why should WE reduce our dependence on Middle East oil?
Religious Diﬀerences in the Middle East: The Roots of Terrorism? The conﬂict between secularism and religion led to revoluDon in Iran (1979) Islamic fundamentalism and terrorism: one fueling the other? 3 major terrorist groups: Hamas (based in PalesDne) Hezbollah (based in Lebanon) Al-‐Qaeda (based in Afghanistan) Our response to 9/11: Invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan to destroy Al-‐Qaeda Bin Laden dead? Is it over?