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  1. 1. Unit  1  :  Review   CupidA Spanish galleon, Martin Lutherca. 1600 Louis XIV of France
  2. 2. What  mo(vated  European  Explora(on  during   the  Age  of  Discovery?  •   A  –  Finding  a  newer  and  faster  sea  route  to  China  and  India  •   B  –  Conquering  new  lands  and  people,  spreading  Christianity  •   C  –  A  spirit  of  intellectual  curiosity  •   D  –  Trading  gold,  spices  and  other  resources  to  get  rich  and  powerful  •   E  –  All  of  the  Above    
  3. 3. Prince  Henry  and  the  dawn  of  Discovery  •  Portuguese  sailor  and   explorer,  born  in  1394  •  Set  up  a  “school”  for   navigators  and  map-­‐ makers  in  1427  •  Set  his  sights  on   AFRICA  •  Wanted  to  find  a  route   around  Africa  to  Asia  •  Helped  establish  the   first  slave  trade  between  
  4. 4. Two  Important  Sailing  Innova1ons  —  THE CARAVEL —  THE COMPASS—  Invented by the Portuguese in —  Earliest known use of it was in the 15th century China, ca. 250 BC—  Light, maneuverable sailing ship —  First used by European sailors in—  Used a TRIANGULAR SAIL that the 13th century allowed ships to move AGAINST —  Uses a magnetized lodestone THE WIND! —  Enabled voyages beyond coasts—  Allowed for greater speed as well —  Helps sailors find DIRECTION!   VS.
  5. 5. English  Colonies  in  •  North  America:   Virginia  Company  established   Jamestown  in  1607  •  Trading  site  for  gold,  furs  and   tobacco.    Lasted  unDl  1705.  •  1620  –  The   __________________  landed  at   Plymouth  Rock,  Mass.  •  102  colonists  came,  looking  for   RELIGIOUS  FREEDOM  •  We  call  them  Puritans  or   __________________.  •  They  were  persecuted  by  the   Church  of  England  for  their   Protestant  (Calvinist)  beliefs.  
  6. 6. The  MAYFLOWER  COMPACT,  Nov.  •  12  t1620   “Having  undertaken  a  voyage  to  plant   he   first  colony  in  the  Northern  parts  of   Virginia,  do  by  these  present  solemnly  and   mutually  in  the  presence  of  God,  and  one   of  another,  covenant  and  combine   ourselves  together  into  a  civil  body   politic,  for  our  better  ordering  and   preservation  and  furtherance  of  the  ends   aforesaid;  and  by  virtue  hereof  to  enact,   constitute,  and  frame  such  just  and   equal  laws,  ordinances,  acts,   constitutions,  and  offices,  from  time  to   time,  as  shall  be  thought  most  meet  and   convenient  for  the  general  good  of  the   colony,  unto  which  we  promise  all  due   submission  and  obedience.”    •  Why  is  this  document  so  important?   The Original copy!
  7. 7. • What kinds of things were traded back and forth in theColumbian Exchange?• What were the positives and negatives for each side?
  8. 8. SLAVERY  comes  to  Africa  and   the  New  World…  —  Countries  like  Portugal,  England  and  Spain  traded  guns  in  Africa  to  local   chiefs  for  slaves  and  captured  prisoners.  —  Slaves  made  the  MIDDLE  PASSAGE  from  Africa  to  the  West  Indies.  —  There,  the  slaves  worked  in  sugar  cane  planta(ons,  which  led  to  higher   European  demand  and  increased  slave  trade  across  the  AtlanDc  
  9. 9. The  Protestant  Reforma1on   How  much  •  Which  of  the  following  was  a  CAUSE  of   for  no   Purgatory?   the  Protestant  Reformation:  •  A  –  Church  clergy  were  abusing  their   power  •  B  –  The  poor  were  being  neglected  while   bishops  and  cardinals  grew  wealthier  •  C  –  Kings  and  Popes  fought  back  and  forth   over  who  was  more  powerful  •  D  –  The  sale  of  indulgences  to  pay  for   Church  building  projects  •  E  –  All  of  the  Above  
  10. 10. AOer  100  years  of  growing  hatred…   Thirty Year’s War! (1618 – 1648)• The Cause: HRE Ferdinand II wanted to make Bohemia Catholic; it was Protestant.•  Catholics, Lutherans and Calvinists all fought each other in GERMANY, the Holy Roman Empire fell apart and was divided up into small principalities.• So: France, Spain, Sweden and Denmark all tried to snatch parts of Germany!• The Result: more then 3 million Europeans died. FRANCE won BIG TIME!
  11. 11. The  Peace  of  Westphalia  and  the  Results   of  Reforma0on  in  Europe  •  The  Peace  of  Westphalia  (1648)   ended  the  Thirty  Years  War  •  Spain,  Germany  and  Sweden  were   all  weakened  by  war,  loss  of  land  •  FRANCE  grew  in  size  and   power  after  the  war:   centralized  •  New  borders  were  drawn,  official   “countries”  were  established  •  Absolute  Monarchies  became     the  new  way  to  govern  •  What  does  it  mean  to  be  an   “Absolute  Monarch”?  •  What  is  the  “Divine  Right  of   Kings”?  
  12. 12. Two  Absolute  Monarchs:  •  LOUIS  XIV  -­‐  FRANCE   —  Peter  the  Great  -­‐  RUSSIA  •  Ruled  France  for  72  years:   —  Ruled  for  42  years  (d.  1725)   The  “Sun  King”  (d.  1715)   —  Through  military  victories  ,  he  •  Ended  Feudalism,  made   created  the  Russian  Empire,  the   Paris  the  official  Capital   largest  in  the  world  at  the  time  •  Controlled  every  aspect  of   —  Modernized  Russia  by  making  it   French  government   more  “European”,  brought  ships,  •  Built  the  Palace  of   technology  and  new  ideas  to  Russia   Versailles  as  a  symbol  of   his  wealth  and  power   —  Built  St.  Petersburg,  and  made  it  •  “I  am  the  State.”  –  Louis  XIV   his  new  capital  
  13. 13. The  ENGLISH  CIVIL  WAR:     King  –  No  King  –  King  Again!  •  King  Charles  I  of  England  refused  to  give  in   to  Parliaments  demands  •  He  claimed  Divine  Right  to  Absolute  Rule  –   Parliament  declared  war!  •   Charles  I  lost  the  Civil  War,  was  arrested   and  beheaded  in  1649  •  Parliament’s  leader,  Oliver  Cromwell,  took   over  as  “Lord  Protector”  until  his  death  in   1658  –  He  was  a  Puritan:  NO  FUN  L  •  Parliament  restored  the  Monarchy  in  1660,   allowing  Charles  II  to  be  king  •  England  was  back  where  it  started,  almost…  •  Parliament  was  now  calling  the  shots!  
  14. 14. The  Glorious  Revolu1on  -­‐  1688  •  King  James  II  of  England  was   Catholic,  so  was  his  new  son…  •  Parliament  wanted  to  keep   England  Protestant,  so  it  called  on   William  III  of  Holland  to  fight   James  II  •  James  II  ran  away  like  a  little  girl…  •  William  and  Mary  become  King   and  Queen  of  England  •  Parliament  has  major  pull  now,  so:  •  ENGLISH  BILL  of  RIGHTS  in   1689  •  What  did  it  guarantee?  
  15. 15. Unit  2  Review    
  16. 16. The Scientific Revolution•  What was the Scientific Revolution?•  What Spurred the Scientific Revolution?
  17. 17. Ptolemy vs Copernicus Geocentric – The Earth is Heliocentric Theory - Thethe Center of the Universe Sun is the Center of the Universe
  18. 18. Galileo Galileež  Designed  New  ScienDfic  devices   —  Thermometer   —  Telescope  ž  Confirmed  Copernicus’  Theory  ž  Silenced  by  the  Church   —  The  InquisiDon  condemned  Galileo  in  1633  because  his  teachings   clashed  with  the  Bible,  which  read:  "God  fixed  the  earth  upon  its   foundaDon,  not  to  be  moved  forever."  Galileo  was  rehabilitated   a_er  359  years.         —  In  1992  of  Galileo,  the  Italian  astronomer  persecuted  by  the  Church   for  teaching  that  the  Earth  revolved  around  the  sun.  
  19. 19. Sir Isaac Newton•  Devloped the “Theory of Laws  of  MoDon   Universal Gravity” First  law  (the  law  of  inerDa):  A  body  in   moDon  will  stay  in  moDon,  and  a  body  at  •  Discovered White light was rest  will  remain  at  rest,  unless  acted  on  by   comprised of multiple a  force.   spectrums of light Second  law:  The  force  of  an  object  is  •  Developed Calculus equal  to  its  mass  Dmes  its  acceleraDon.  •  The Principia Third  law:  For  every  acDon  there  is  an   equal  and  opposite  reacDon.     *  Proved  the  universe  follows  a  set   of  predictable  rules.  
  20. 20. The Enlightenmentž  Locke  -­‐  It  is  the   ž  Montesquieu  -­‐     governments   3  Branches  of   ž  Voltaire  -­‐    God   ž  Hobbes  –   job  to  protect   Government  –   had  made  the   Humans  are   the  natural   Judicial,   universe  then   naturally   rights  of  life,   LegislaDve,   le_  it  to  run  on   violent  and   liberty,  and   ExecuDve.   its  own,  Kings   Selfish   property.   Influenced  the   “should”  be     U.S.   governed  by     ConsDtuDon   Reason   ž  Rousseau–     Humans  are   naturally  Good   and  Society     Corrupts  them    
  21. 21. American Revolution Causesž Britain’s  Debt:  Fixes?  ž Taxes:   —  Sugar  Act  of  1764   —  Stamp  Act  of  1765  ž ProclamaDon  of  1763  ž No  RepresentaDon  in  Parliament  ž Boston  Massacre  ž Intolerable  Acts  ž Mass.  MiliDa  and  the  BriDsh  Regulars  fire  upon   each  other  on  Lexington  Green  
  22. 22. The New America•  Articles of Confederation – –  Passed in 1781 –  WEAK central government –  No power to… •  Collect taxes, force states to follow federal law, establish an army, print money –  Much confusion among states – no unity or uniformity
  23. 23. The U.S. Constitution ž  Power  is  shared  between   federal  and  state   governments     ž  SeparaDon  of  Powers  –  Who   originally  came  up  with  this   idea?   ž  Checks  and  Balances  system   ž  What  type  of  legislature  did   the  ConsDtuDon  create?     How  many  parts?   ž  It  established  a  government   based  on  a  document   reflecDng  the  will  of  the   people  
  24. 24. The French Revolution
  25. 25. Robespierre Reign of Terror•  Robespierre – Ruled with the Council of Public Safety in 1793•  Reign of Terror –•  300,000 arrested; 17,000 executed•  Robespierre eventually executed
  26. 26. France  Under  Napoleon  Bonaparte   ž Set  up  tax  collecDon   system   ž Est.  a  naDonal  bank   ž Fired  corrupt  officials   ž Set  up  public  schools   ž Restored  power  to   Cath.  Church   ž Napoleonic  code:   uniform  set  of  laws  
  27. 27. Napoleon in Powerž Appointed  to  lead  French  Army  in  1796   by  the  Directory  ž 1798  –  Mediterranean  Campaign    (Defeat   which  Napoleon  glorifies)  ž 1799  Coup  De  Ta  –  Napoleon  in  Power  ž 1804  Napoleon  the  Emperor   —  Meanwhile  European  CoaliDons  form  to   crush  the  RevoluDon   —  Britain  sole  hope  of  Europe  ž 1807  Peninsula  Disaster  ž 1810  Russia  Campaign  falls  apart  –   Napoleon’s  most  serious  Defeat  ž 1813  Napoleon  exiled  to  Elba  ž 1814  100  Days  –  and  Defeat  at  Waterloo  
  28. 28. Revolutions in Latin Americaž HaiD   —  Leader  -­‐  Toussaint-­‐Louverture   ○  HaiD  was  the  first  LaDn  American  colony  to  gain  its  independence.   ○  Toussaint  was  a  former  slave.   ○  France  regained  control  of  HaiD,  but  eventually  gave  up  the  colony.  ž Mexico   —  Leader  -­‐  Father  Hidalgo   ○  Against  Spain  –  Grimo  de  Dolores   —  Fails  Mob  vs  Wealthy  MesDzos   ○  Executed  in  1811  ž Why  RevoluDons  fail?  
  29. 29. Nationalism Unites!•  Italy – –  Divided into small principalities –  Young Italy 1831– •  Giuseppe Mazzini – Pushes for Italian Rule of Italians; More Power for the People, Unification –  Giuseppe Garibaldi – Eventually Unites Italy under King Victor Emmanuel
  30. 30. Nationalism Unites! ž Germany  –     —  Omo  Von  Bismarck  –  Chancellor  of   Prussia  in  1862   —  German  Choice  –  Prussia  or  Austria?   —  Prussia  forces  war  upon  Austria   ○  Using  Railroads  and  new  weaponry  they   defeat  Austria   —  Bismarck  Rules  with  an  Iron  Fist     —  Bismarck  teases  war  with  France  –     ○  Militarism  draws  other  kingdoms  to  Prussia   creaDng  a  united  Germany  
  31. 31. “Workers  of  the  world  unite;  you  have  nothing  to  lose  but  your  chains.”    ~Karl  Marx  “In  the  long  history  of  humankind  (and  animal  kind,  too)  those  who  learned  to  collaborate  and  improvise  have  most  effecDvely  prevailed.”    ~Charles  Darwin       Unit  3  Review:      
  32. 32. How  did  the  Industrial  Revolu0on   change  the  world?   Social  Changes   Economic  Changes   PoliDcal  Changes  
  33. 33. The  Industrial  RevoluDon   begins  in  England  •   Started  in  the  early  1700’s  •   Advances  in  agriculture  led  to  a  rise  in  populaDon,  less  farmers  required  to  feed  the  people  •   ALSO:  •   Numerous  Rivers      (water  wheels,  transportaDon)  •   Strong  banking  system      (to  build  factories,  start  businesses)  •   Many  available  laborers      (to  work  in  the  mills,  operate  machines  and  make  parts)  • Started  with  TEXTILE  MILLS  •   (comon>yarn>fabric>stuff!)  
  34. 34. Grandma got nothin’ InnovaDons  that  increased  the   on these guys!producDon  of  cloth  in  the  18th  century:  FLYING SHUTTLE, 1733 SPINNING JENNY, 1770 WATER FRAME, 1769
  35. 35. Robert  Fulton  and  the  Steamship  •  Applied the Steam Engine that was invented by James Watt in 1775 (powered the paddles)•  First steamship, called the Clermont, built in 1807•  Traveled 300 miles in 32 hours!•  Forever changed the way people traveled on water•  Transportation and travel increased dramatically! The Clermont
  36. 36. The  Second  Industrial  Revolu(on  •  Started during the middle of 19th century•  Improved upon earlier technology and inventions•  Used chemistry and physics to build more advanced machines•  ASSEMBLY LINES increased the speed of factory production•  New sources of energy were discovered and used for power:•  KEROSENE•  GASOLINE•  ELECTRICTY
  37. 37. INVENTIONS  that  Changed  the  World!  •  Match the invention with the Inventor! A.   Edison   B.   Bell   C.   Morse   Phonograph, 1877 Dynamite, 1866 D.   Nobel  Telephone, 1876 E.   Marconi   Telegraph, 1837 Wireless radio, 1896
  38. 38. The  Human  Cost  of   Industrializa0on  ž  By  the  end  of  the  19th  century,  England   and  America  were  highly  industrialized,   however…  ž  While  the  rich  factory  owners  got  richer…  ž  Child  labor  was  used  (and  abused)  ž  Factory  injuries  were  common  ž  CiDes  became  overcrowded  and  polluted  ž  Long  workdays,  limle  pay,  lousy  working   condiDons  for  the  lower  class  ž  BUT,  businesses  needed  more  educated   people  =  larger  MIDDLE  CLASS  
  39. 39. MATCH  THEM!   New  ways  of  Thinking  :     Society  and  Humanity     John   Stuart  ž  He  argued  that  humans  share  a  common   Mill   ancestor  with  apes,  also  argued  that  Natural   SelecDon  =  “Survival  of  the  Fimest”  ž  He  believed  that  people  could  build  a   Utopian  (perfect)  society  through  Socialist   Karl   ideals   Marx  ž  He  said  that  Capitalism  would  fail  because   workers  would  revolt  and  create  a   Communist  society  without  rich  and  poor,   only  the  “working  class”  sharing  wealth.   Charles  ž  He  believed  that  governments  should  only   do  those  things  which  guarantee  the   Darwin   greatest  freedom  and  enjoyment  for  their   people  =  U0litarianism  (do  as  you  please,  as   long  as  you  don’t  hurt  others)   Robert   Owen  
  40. 40. The  Benefits  of  Industrializa(on:   Increased  Health  and  Leisure  •  By  the  end  of  the  19th  century,   scienDsts  had  discover  GERMS!   •  By  the  end  of  the  19th  century,  millions  of   (bacteria  and  viruses)   (mostly)  MIDDLE  CLASS  Americans  and  •  LOUIS  PASTEUR,  French   Europeans  enjoyed     •  INCREASED  LEISURE  TIME   microbiologist  who  created   •  This  led  to  a  demand  for                   vaccines  for  rabies  and  anthrax              MASS  ENTERTAINMENT  !  •  Discovered  new  ways  to  fight   •  People  now  had  the  wealth  and  the  free   diseases!  (heaDng  milk  to  kill   Dme  to  enjoy  things  like:   bacteria  =  pasteuriza0on!)   •  Theaters,  SporDng  Events,  Concerts,  •  Bemer  medicine  =  bemer  health!   Movies,  Carnivals  and…VACATIONS!  
  41. 41. European  Imperialism:   Africa  and  Asia  Beware!  ž  What  is  IMPERIALISM?    ž  What  were  countries  like  England,  France,  the   Netherlands  and  Belgium  hoping  to  accomplish   in  Africa  and  Asia?  ž  Acquiring  RAW  MATERIALS  (for  industry)  ž  Promising  PROSPERITY  to  ciDzens  back  home   (at  the  expense  of  colonized  people)  ž  Zeal  for  MISSIONARY  WORK  (souls  to  save)  ž  From  1885  –  1914,  nearly  100  million  people   were  conquered  and  taken  over          by  European   countries  ž  Great  Britain  took  over  all  of  India  ž  Africa  was  carved  up  by  7  different  European   naDons:  populaDons  grew,                    but  natural   resources,  tradiDons  and      culture  were  lost,  as   well  as  self-­‐rule.  
  42. 42. So  how  did  European  na(ons       jus(fy  their  overseas  Empires?  ž Europeans  believed  they  were   more  civilized  and  “superior”  to   all  others  ž IndustrializaDon  needed  to  be   spread  throughout  the  world  ž Belief  in  “Social  Darwinism”:  ž Survival  of  the  Fimest…countries!  ž A  new  wave  of  NaDonalism  made   them  want  to  grow  stronger  by   defeaDng  weaker  countries,   building  their  armies  and   increasing  their  industrial  output  
  43. 43. India  and  China:    meet  GREAT  BRITAIN!   ž  The  BriDsh  East  India  Company  had  controlled   India  for  over  a  century,  unDl….   ž  The  Sepoy  MuDny  of  1857  proved  that  the   company  had  lost  its  grip  on  India   ž  So,  Queen  Victoria  ordered  that  the  BriDsh   Crown  take  DIRECT  CONTROL  OF  INDIA  =  “The   Raj”  (lasted  unDl  1947)   ž  In  China,  the  BriDsh  were  buying  tea,  silk  and   porcelain,  China  only  bought  silver   Part of the British Empire, 1914 ž  To  balance  the  trade,  England  started  to  sell   OPIUM,  a  highly  addic(ve  drug   ž  China  was  turning  into  a  country  full  of  drug   addicts,  so  they  made  Opium  illegal,  then   blocked  BriDsh  trading  ships   ž  1840  –  1st  Opium  War,  China  lost   ž  Britain  now  had  free  trade  in  China  and  5  open   ports  
  44. 44. China  and  Japan  move  forward…  ž China  -­‐  Qing  Dynasty  ended  with  revolt  in  1911   —  Sun  Yat-­‐sen  –  (1866  –  1925)   —  Leader  of  the  NaDonalist  Party,  GOALS:     ○  Drive  out  the  Qing  Dynasty   ○  Create  a  DemocraDc  Republic  of  China   ○  Guarantee  economic  security  for  China   ○  A_er  his  death,  his  followers  split  into  two  rival  parDes:  Communists   vs.  NaDonalists  ž Japan  –  becomes  a  major  military  and  industrial  naDon   —  The  Meiji  RestoraDon  –  ended  rule  of  shoguns  in  1867   ○  For  Imperial  Expansion,  Japan  needed:   ○  More  natural  resources  for  industry   ○  To  open  new  overseas  markets  for  trade   ○  ModernizaDon,  especially  weapons  
  45. 45. “It  is  forbidden  to  kill;  therefore  all  murderers  are  punished  unless  they  kill  in  large  numbers  and  to  the  sound  of  trumpets.”    ~Voltaire   Unit 4 Review:
  46. 46. Outbreak  of  World  War  I   Military  Alliances  in  Europe,    based  on:   Who  was  assassinated?    Where?  What  two  countries  started  the  war?   The Balkan “Powder Keg”
  47. 47. Na0onalism  and  Militarism:  Major   Causes  of  World  War  I  •   A  sense  of  NATIONAL  UNITY  and  PRIDE:  •   Fueled  Rivalries  between  European  naDons      (compeDDon    to  be  the  #1  country)  •   Encouraged  NaDons  to  expand  their  Empires    (conquering  lands  and  adding  colonies)  •   GROWING  MILITARISM  in  Europe  led  to:  •   Built  up  larger  armies  •   Stockpiled  powerful  weapons    •   Researched  new  technology  to    perfect  the  art  of  modern  warfare    
  48. 48. A  War  of  Alliances:  Match  the  Countries!   RUSSIA   GERMANY   AUSTRIA-­‐HUNGARY   SERBIA   FRANCE   BULGARIA   ITALY   BRITAIN   OTTOMAN  EMPIRE   UNITED  STATES    
  49. 49. WWI:  A  LONG  and     TOTAL  WAR…    ž  Most  Europeans  believed  the  war   ž  THE  RESULT:   would  end  quickly,  and  involve   ž  Countries  had  to  commit  to  TOTAL   only  a  few  countries…   WAR:  ž  However,  it  LASTED  MUCH   ž  1.  Involves  every  ciDzen   LONGER  than  expected  and   ž  2.  Requires  increased  industrial   dragged  on  and  on   producDon  ž  WHY?   ž  3.  NaDons  must  use  every  ž  More  countries  decided  to  join  the   resource  available   war,  both  to  help  their  allies  and   ž  Led  to  MAJOR  CHANGES:   for  personal  gain   ž  Women  joined  the  workforce  ž  Bamles  were  BOGGED  DOWN  IN   ž  Govt’s  took  control  over  their   TRENCH  WARFARE   naDons’  economies  ž  No  country  had  a  clear  upper  hand   ž  “Planned”  economies  replaced   in  the  war…   Capitalism  
  50. 50. The  United  States  enters  the  War  ž  At  the  start  of  the  war,  America  wanted  to   STAY  OUT  of  fighDng  ž  It  was  a  EUROPEAN  WAR,  and  not  our  problem  ž   THEN…  ž  In  1915,  a  German  U-­‐Boat  sunk  the   LUSITANIA,  a  defenseless  passenger  ship:  118   Americans  died  ž  WOODROW  WILSON  used  this  as  the  main   reason  to  join  the  Allies  in  1917  ž  Part  of  his  FOURTEEN  POINTS  for  PEACE:  ž  An  end  to  SECRET  DIPOLAMCY  ž  Freedom  of  the  SEAS    ž  New  associaDon  of  world  naDons:  ž  LEAGUE  OF  NATIONS  
  51. 51. World  War  1  comes  to  an  END  (Cease-­‐ Fire:  Nov.  11,1918)  ž By  the  end  of  the  “Great  War”:  ž Millions  of  soldiers  and  civilians  died   (most  of  any  war  to  date)  ž The  Economies  of  many  European   naDons  were  RUINED  ž THE  TREATY  of  VERSAILLES:  ž The  Allies  wanted  to  PUNISH  and   BLAME  Germany  for  the  war:  ž Created  the  League  of  NaDons   (though  it  did  not  accept  all  of   Wilson’s  14  Points…)  ž The  Treaty’s  “War-­‐Guilt”  clause   angered  Germans  
  52. 52. The  Russian  Revolu1ons  of  1917  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 
  53. 53. Joseph  Stalin  takes  over  as     Leader  of  Soviet  Russia  • • • • • • • • • 
  54. 54. INDIA  and  EGYPT  take  different  paths  to   Independence   1922 1947 ž  ž ž ž  ž ž ž 
  55. 55. Zionism  and  the  Baale  for  the  Holy   Land  ž ž ž ž ž  Israel in 1947 Palestinian settlements
  56. 56. The  Great  Depression     and  FDR’s  “New  Deal”   CAUSES  OF  THE  GREAT   DEPRESSION   Decline  in  Farming   Prices   The  Stock  Market   Crash  of  1929   RELIEF,   RECOVERY   Bank  Failures   REFORM!  ž Franklin  Roosevelt’s  NEW  DEAL  (1933  –  36):   programs  designed  to  pull  the  U.S.  out  of  the   Great  Depression  
  57. 57. FASCISM  and  COMMUNISM   Both  seek  to   Both  try  to   Both  seek   eliminate   suppress  poliDcal  Totalitarian  Rule   poliDcal   freedoms   opposiDons   To stay in power, the government must have ALL the power.
  58. 58. Adolf  Hitler’s  Mein  Kampf:     the  wriDng  was  on  the  wall…    ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 
  59. 59. Unit  5  Review:    World  War  2,  The  Cold  War,     and  Beyond…  
  60. 60. Part  2:  OpDon  #2!  (instead  of  the  essay)  ž Make  a  fun,  creaDve  HISTORICAL  POSTER  about  one  of  the   following  people  or  events:   –  Pearl  Harbor   –  Dwight  Eisenhower   –  The  Holocaust   –  Hiroshima  and  Nagasaki   –  John  F.  Kennedy   –  The  Berlin  Wall   –  Cuban  Missile  Crisis   –  Nikita  Khrushchev   –  MarDn  Luther  King,  Jr.     Go  to:  
  61. 61. The  20th  Century:  An  American  Let’s  Review  what  we   learned  in  UNIT  5!   Century?   IMPORTANT  MILITARY  EVENTS   IMPORTANT  SOCIAL/CULTURAL  EVENTS   IMPORTANT  LEADERS  of  the  20th  CENTURY  
  62. 62. Causes  of   WWII    ž Treaty  of  Versailles     –  War  Guilt  Clause   –  League  of  NaDons       –  No  Power,  No  Military,  Not  all  countries  part,  and  Slow  ž German  Aggression   –  Push  for  Sudetenland,  Anchluss  (“link-­‐up”)  with  Austria,   Invasion  of  Poland  ž Italian  Aggression   –  Invasion  of  Ethiopia  and  Albania  ž Japanese  Aggression   –  Invasion  of  China   –  Invasion  of  Southeastern  Asia    ž Munich  1938  –  Policy  of  Appeasement  
  63. 63. America  Joins  the  War  ž December  7,  1941  –     –  Japanese  bomb  Pearl   Harbor  in  order  to  destroy   U.S.  Pacific  fleet  and   hmp:// demoralize  U.S.A.   fdr_infamy.html    -­‐  Hear  the  Speech!   –  Guam,  Hong  Kong,   Philippians,  Midway,  and   Wake  Island  ž Opposite  effect  happens:  ž America  Stands  behind   war  –    ž America’s  Navy  becomes   Carrier  based  in  the   Pacific    
  64. 64. Opposing  Powers  of   WW2  v Germany •  United States of Americav Italy •  United Kingdomv Japanv Vichy •  Soviet Union France •  Greecev Romania •  Chinav Hungary •  Francev Bulgaria •  Free Poland
  65. 65. Leaders  of  WW2        England  –  Winston  Churchill  United  States  –  Franklin  Delano  Roosevelt          France  –  Charles  De  Gaulle  Soviet  Union  –  Joseph  Stalin              China  –  Mao  Zedong  
  66. 66. Evil  Leaders  of  WW2      Germany  –  Adolf  Hitler            Italy  –  Benito  Mussolini              Japan  –  Hideki  Tojo    
  67. 67. The  Holocaust    ž The  Holocaust  a.k.a.  The  Final  SoluDon  ž What  was  the  Holocaust?   –  Hitler  blamed  the  Jewish  Race  for  German  poverty   and  the  loss  of  WWI  (a  scapegoat)   –  Horrors  of  the  Camps   –  Dr.  Mengele  conducted  cruel,  inhumane   experiments  on  Jewish  people   –  SystemaDc  Killing  of  Millions  of  :   –  Jews,  Homosexuals,  Gypsies,  Poles,  Russians,  PoliDcal   Adolf Prisoners,  People  with  DisabiliDes,  Mentally  Disabled  Eichmann (all  “geneDcally  inferior”)   main “architect”ž Outcomes   of the Final Solution” –  About  5-­‐7  million  total  died  in  death  camps  
  68. 68. The  Bomb  ž What  was  the  Bomb?  ž Why  drop  the  Atomic  bomb?   –  A_er  the  invasion  of  Iwo  Jima.  U.S.  Officials  realize  An   invasion  of  Japan  would  cost  tens  of  thousands  of   American  lives  ž  Dropped  by  the  “Enola  Gay”  on  Aug  6,1945   –  Hiroshima  First  to  be  bombed   –  Nagasaki  3  days  later  (why  drop  TWO?)  ž  Damage  of  the  Bomb:   –  Though  we  dont  know  exactly  how  many  perished  in  the  bombing,  it   is  esDmated  that  140,000  (plus  or  minus  10,000)  had  died  by  the  end   of  December  1945.  
  69. 69. Effects  of  WW2  More  people  died  in  WW2  than  any  other  war  in   History  
  70. 70. Other  Effects  of  WW2  New  World  Powers:   –  Soviet  Union  -­‐    Great  Military  Power   –  Land  grab:  Soviets  Control  Eastern  Europe  and  push  for  a   spread  of  Communism   –  United  States  –  One  of  the  richest  countries  on  Earth   –  United  States  vows  to  defend  Democracy  throughout  the   world  Trials  of  War  Criminals     –  Tokyo  Trials  –  Japanese  officers  put  on  trial   –  Nuremburg  Trials  –  Nazi’s  put  on  trial  for  the  horrors  of   the  death  camps   –  to  judge  Nazi  leaders  for  their  policies  and  orders  
  71. 71. CreaDng  a  LasDng  Peace  ž FormaDon  of  the  United  NaDons   –  What  is  the  U.N.?  ž Germany  Divided:   –  Germany  was  divided  into  4  sectors            following  the  war  -­‐  Communist/DemocraDc   –  Berlin  also  divided  into  4  sectors:   –  U.S.,  Great  Britain,  France,     –  and  Soviet  Union   The  Divisions  of  Germany  and  Berlin   Were  the  “first  shots  fired”  in  the  Cold  War  
  72. 72. The Cold War [1945-1991]: An Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc US & the Nations Western [“Iron Curtain”] Democracies GOAL à “Containment”GOAL à spread world-wide of Communism & the Communism eventual collapse of the Communist world.                                     METHODOLOGIES: 1.  Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] and political propaganda 2.  Arms Race [nuclear escalation] 3.  Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of peoples in Europe, Asia and the Third World 4.  Communist govt. & socialist economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy 5.  Bi-Polarization of Europe: [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
  73. 73. U.S. Anti-Communist Policy: CONTAINMENTMain Goal Means Actual Application Offering Supplying economic* Limit the democratic and (and military) aid to spread of capitalist countries to help Communism alternatives to defend them against into Eastern the Soviet Union “swing” countries Europe, Asia (Greece & Turkey) “Truman Doctrine”
  74. 74. President  Harry  Truman:  •  “At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.•  I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.•  I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way.•  I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.” - Speech given to Congress, 1947
  75. 75. The  Truman  Doctrine  takes  effect:  The   Berlin  Airli_  •   1948,  the  Soviet  Union  blockaded  West  Berlin,  hoping  to  force  a  surrender  •   No  supplies  could  come  into  West  Berlin  by  land  or  sea  •   So…The  U.S.  began  providing  supplies  to  the  German  ciDzens  in  West  Berlin  •   How?    With  planes,  LOTS  of  them  •   Between  1948-­‐1949,  nearly  277,000   Take  that,  missions  were  flown  over  West  Berlin   Communism!  •   Nearly  2  million  tons  of  goods  and  supplies  were  dropped  on  West  Berlin  •   The  Soviet  Union’s  plan  to  “starve”  West  Berlin  failed  and  the  blockade  was  li_ed.    
  76. 76. vs.   •   Warsaw  •   North  Atlan0c        Treaty  Organiza0on      Treaty  Organiza0on   •   Eastern  Bloc  naDons  under  Soviet  •   Started  in  1949,  sDll  acDve   control  met  in  Warsaw,  Poland  to  today,    with  26  members   unite  against  the  West  •   A  mutual  defense  alliance   •   Started  in  1955  as  a  response  to  among  Western  NaDons   NATO  •   Formed  to  stop  the  spread  of   •   A  mutual  defense  alliance  among  Communism  in  Europe   Communist  NaDons  •   An  amack  against  any   •   Headquartered  in  Moscow,  along  member,  was  an  amack  against   with  military  command  all  members   •   The  OrganizaDon  dissolved  in  1991  •   Members  help  each  other   when  the  Soviet  Union  collapsed.    with  financial  and  military  aid.  
  77. 77. Europe: Cold War “Battleground” The  “Iron  Curtain”  
  78. 78. The Korean War: 1950-1953 •  Korea was freed from Japanese rule after WW2… •  It was divided along the 38th Parallel for political reasons •  China supported North Korea and wanted to make it Communist •  The U.S. supported South Korea and wanted to stop the spread of Communism General •  North Korea invaded the Douglas MacArthur south in 1950, the U.S. and U.N. declared war •  Ended in a stalemate •  The RESULT: •  COMMUNIST N. KOREA •  NON-COMMUNIST S. KOREA
  79. 79. Oct.  1962:  CUBAN  MISSILE  CRISIS   No  Soviet   Wanted  quick  Missiles  in  Cuba   strikes   Fidel  Castro:   Khrushchev  backed   JFK:  Announced  a   allowed  Russia  to   down,  and  U.S.  /   blockade  of  Cuba   install  missile  bases   Soviet  relaDons   in  Cuba   improved  a_er     13 Days in October that almost led to NUCLEAR WAR!
  80. 80. The  United  States:  AXer   World  War  2…  ž The  1950’s  was  a  decade  of  peace  and   prosperity  in  America  ž Birthrates  soared  as  economic   confidence  grew:  THE  BABY  BOOM!    ž The  threat  of  Communism  in  America   grew  as  well:            THE  RED  SCARE!            (Sen.  Joseph  McCarthy  and  the  House   “Un-­‐American”  Commimee)  ž By  the  1960’s,  THE  CIVIL  RIGHTS   MOVEMENT,  led  by  MarDn  Luther  King,   guaranteed  equality  and  freedom  for  all   minoriDes  
  81. 81. A  New  “Post-­‐War”  EUROPE  • • • • • • • • 
  82. 82. The  SOVIET  UNION  crumbles,  then   collapses…  ž  ž ž  ž  ž ž  ž  ž ž  ž 
  83. 83. Don’t  Mess   with  the  U.S.!   R.I.P.   SOVIET  UNION  Oct.  1917  –  Dec.  1991  
  84. 84. “Wherever  you  have  an  efficient  government,  you  have  a  dictatorship.”    ~  Dwight  Eisenhower   Unit 6 Review:
  85. 85. Let’s  Review  Unit  6!   Important  Leaders   Important  Events   Important    Changes  
  86. 86. La0n  America  aXer  WW2:  Economic   Problems  &  IndustrializaDon  •   CAUSES  of  Economic  Struggles:  •   TRADE  DEFICITS  •   LACK  of  INVESTMENT  CAPITAL  •   WIDE  GAPS  between  RICH/POOR  •   LaDn  America  was  mostly  AGRICULTURAL,  with  centuries  of  poverty  and  lack  of  modernizaDon  •   THIS  LED  TO:  •   MigraDon  of  millions  of  farm  workers  to  ciDes  •   Rising  urban  unemployment  •   Overcrowded  ciDes  
  87. 87. The  United  States  Intervenes  in  La(n   America  during  the  Cold  War  • More  of  the  same:  • U.S.  wanted  to  stop  the  spread   Cause  of  U.S.   Effect  of  U.S.    of  Communism,  this  Dme  in  LaDn   Involvement   Involvement    America  •   SO…  •   U.S.  Government  backed  the   Allende’s  Rise   Military  took  military  overthrow  of  Socialist   in  Chile   control  of  Chile  President  of  Chile,  Salvador  Allende  in  1973  •   In  the  80’s,  the  CIA  supported  the   Sandinistas  take   War  between   Contras  and  Contras  trying  to  overthrow  the   control  of   Sandinistas   Nicaragua   intensified  Communist  Sandinistas  •   Our  military  supported  the  capitalist  dictatorship  in     Figh(ng  El  Salvador  against  le_ist  “freedom   Civil  War  in  El   intensified  against   Salvador   guerrillas  in      El  fighters”   Salvador  
  88. 88. La1n  American  Dictators:  ž Augusto  Pinochet:  ž   General  who  took  over  Chile  a_er  a   coup  détat  overthrew  Allende  ž  He  ruled  as  dictator  with  U.S.  help  from   1973-­‐1990  ž Fidel  Castro:  ž  Seized  power  in  Cuba  in  1959  ž  Set  up  a  Communist  state  ž  U.S.  placed  an  embargo  on  Cuba  (no   Americans  in,  no  Cuban  goods  out)    ž Juan  Peron:  ž  Military  dictator  in  ArgenDna  ž  Ruled  from  1946  –  1974  ž   Very  popular  wife,  Eva  (Evita)  ž  Avoided  making  Communism  an  issue,   played  to  both  sides  
  89. 89. Organiza0on  of  American  States  q Founded  in  1948  q MAIN  PURPOSE:    Provide  ways  to  encourage  regional  cooperaDon  in  LaDn  America  q 35  members,  including  the  United  States  (Cuba,  as  of  2009)  q Headquartered  in  Washington,  D.C.  
  90. 90. The  Rise  of  Mao  Zedong  ž ž ž ž ž ž ž 
  91. 91. India’s  Two  Great  Leaders  •  •  • •  •  • • •  • 
  92. 92. TROUBLES  FOR  SOUTH  ASIA   ž ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž  ž ž  ž  ž  ž  ž 
  93. 93. Causes  of  the  Vietnam  war  ž U.  S.  and  South  Vietnam:    Wanted  to   stop  the  spread  of  Communism  in   Vietnam  ž North  Vietnam:  Wanted  to  take  over   South  Vietnam  and  make  it  Communist,   by  force  if  need  be  ž Vietcong:  Pro-­‐Communist  supporters  in   S.  Vietnam.    Used  “guerrilla”  tacDcs  to   insDll  fear    ž U.  S.  President  Johnson:    Wanted  to  win   the  war  at  all  costs.    
  94. 94. Outcomes  of    The  VIETNAM  WAR:   ReunificaDon  of  North  and  South   Vietnam  in  1975     All  Vietnam  became  a  Communist   Dictatorship  (sDll  is)   Mass  Slaughter  in  Cambodia   (nearly  2  million  killed)  
  95. 95. Changes  in  EAST  ASIA  since  WW2  ž  ž  ž ž  ž  ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž ž  ž  ž 
  96. 96. AFRICA  a_er  World  War  2   A  ConDnent  in  TransiDon   European  powers  seized   colonies  in  Africa   African  people  lost   their  freedom   Workers  exploited   Natural  resources   Apartheid:  ruling  minority   stripped   insDtuted  policy  of  racial   discriminaDon  in  S.  Africa  ž Beginning  around  1960:  ž Many  African  naDons  demanded  independence  from  colonial   rulers.  
  97. 97. AFRICA’s    ETHNIC  RIVALRIES:     The  bimer  consequences  ž ž ž ž ž ž 
  98. 98. The  Origins  of  the  Arab-­‐Israeli   Conflict  in  the  Middle  East  ž ž ž  Palestinian controlled lands in Israel,1946 to 2000ž ž 
  99. 99. The  Middle  East   and  OIL:  Challenges     Lavish  lifestyles  Wealth  Produced   Money  made   from  oil  revenue   by  oil  enriches   from  oil  is   anger  religious   powerful  elites   invested  abroad   extremists   Why should WE reduce our dependence on Middle East oil?
  100. 100. Religious  Differences  in  the  Middle  East:  The   Roots  of  Terrorism?  ž The  conflict  between  secularism  and   religion  led  to  revoluDon  in  Iran   (1979)    ž Islamic  fundamentalism  and   terrorism:  one  fueling  the  other?  ž 3  major  terrorist  groups:  ž Hamas  (based  in  PalesDne)  ž Hezbollah  (based  in  Lebanon)  ž Al-­‐Qaeda  (based  in  Afghanistan)  ž Our  response  to  9/11:  ž Invasion  of  Iraq  and  Afghanistan  to   destroy  Al-­‐Qaeda  ž Bin  Laden  dead?    Is  it  over?  
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