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Disruptive Content: The Online Course Revolution as presented to ACSA's Superintendent's Symposium

Disruptive Content: The Online Course Revolution as presented to ACSA's Superintendent's Symposium

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  • Disruptive Content: The Online Course Revolution Brian Bridges Director, California Learning Resource Network
  • California Learning Resource Network
    • Your one-stop source for standards-aligned electronic learning resources
  • Electronic Learning Resources
    • Software, Internet, video, and video streaming
    • Six subject areas
    • 2600 posted reviews
    • 250/yearly
  • Free Web Information Links
    • Reviews of 4,100 free and commercial-free web sites
    • Primary, secondary, & reference materials
    • Free software and web tools
  • Electronic Learning Assessment Resources
    • Data assessment and warehouses
  • Digital Textbook Initiative
    • Phase One
      • Reviewed 20 math and science books
    • Phase Two
      • Reviewed 17 math, science, and history books
    • Phase Three
      • Reviewed 13 online, interactive math, science, and history “books”
  • Phase 3, Digital Textbook Initiative
    • 13 online, interactive digital textbooks reviewed
        • Five HSS
        • Two mathematics
        • Six science
    • Six met all the content standards
      • 10 met 90% of the standards
  • Common Core Standards
    • Adopted by 44 states
    • CA supplemented with 15% additional standards; SBE adopted on 8/2/10
  • Common Core @ CLRN
    • CLRN’s database and web site now programmed for publishers, admins, and reviewers
    • ELR Publishers may submit resources aligned to either CC or CA standards
  • High School CC Math
    • Continues to be problematic
    • CC defines strands, not courses
      • Algebra
      • Functions
      • Modeling
      • Geometry
      • Statistics and Probability
  • High School Courses
    • Algebra I
    • Geometry
    • Algebra II
    • Mathematics I
    • Mathematics II
    • Mathematics III
    Requires legislation to authorize SBE to adopt Pathways courses.
  • Disrupting Class: How Disruptive Innovation Will Change the Way the World Learns
    • Clayton Christensen and Michael Horn
  • Disruptive Innovation Theory
    • Customers’ needs tend to be stable
    • Companies improve their products
    • Most innovations improve products for current customers
    • Some sustaining innovations represent dramatic breakthroughs
  • Sustaining the Camera
  • Disruptive Innovations…
    • NOT a breakthrough improvement
    • Existing customers can not utilize it
      • And are not attracted to it
    • Benefit “non consumers”
  • The Disruptive Cycle
    • Competing for non-consumers
    • Technology improves / cost declines
    • Compete for original customers
  • The Camera Disruption
    • First digital camera by Kodak (1975)
      • .01 megapixels
  • The Camera Disruption
    • First digital camera by Kodak (1975)
      • .01 megapixels
    • Kodak DCS 100 (1991)
      • 1 Megapixel for $13K
    • Film still thrived
  • NY Times, 1992
  • N.Y. Times
    • “ On July 15, 11 minutes after Gov. Bill Clinton appeared on the podium as the Democratic nominee for President, an Associated Press picture of that moment was being laid out for the front pages of the next day's newspapers across the country.
    • This speed was possible because there was no film to develop: the photographer had made his picture with the Kodak DCS 100 digital camera and transmitted it via a computer modem, saving as much as 20 minutes in processing and transmission”
  • 1999: NY Times
    • “ Early digital cameras were expensive and had such low picture quality, or resolution, that they fared poorly in a comparison with a $10 disposable camera…..
    • A new generation of even better cameras, with two-megapixel resolutions, arrived this summer for about $1,000.”
  • NY Times: Christmas, 2001
    • “ The digital camera market just exploded this year.”
    • (and iPhoto was released)
  • Change is a Process
  • Disruptive Innovations, like a train’s headlight, are always visible to us long before pass by.
  • Old Music Industry Model
    • Sustaining Innovations
    • Albums > Cassettes > CDs
  • Disrupting Music
    • Digital music = Disruption
    • CD sales tumble
    • Is the music industry dying?
    • “ It’s not the music industry that is dying. It is the CD business.”
  • New Music Model=Shift of Power
    • Power shift from label to artist
    • “ Getting signed” is no longer the goal of every artist
    • Creation of a new middle class of artists
    • Greater consumer choice
  • Online Course Revolution
    • Just as digital textbooks grew first in colleges, online course growth has preceded growth in K-12.
  • Online Course Growth
    • Allan & Seaman/Sloan Consortium
    • Class Differences: Online Education in the United States, 2010
  • Students Learning Online
    • 2002: 1.6 million students
      • 9.6% of enrollment
    • 2005: 3.2 million students
      • 18% of enrollment
    • 2009: 5.6 million students
      • 29% of enrollment
      • An increase of one million students over 2008
    • Online learning increases by 20% each year
  • Total vs. Online Enrollment
  • Projected Growth
  • You see the train coming?
  • More Class Differences Data
    • 63% of institutions said that online learning was a critical part of their institution’s long term strategy.
    • A majority of institutions continue to report that there is increasing competition for online students.
  • Comparing Learning Outcomes
    • 66% rated the learning outcomes in online education as the same or superior to those in face-to-face.
    • 75% believe that online courses are as good or better than face-to-face instruction.
  • Competition for Online Students
    • 60% of academic leaders polled believe that there is increasing competition for online students in higher education.
  • Washington State Community Colleges
    • eLearning Growth …last 12 months
    • eLearning up 31%
    • Of all state funded FTE growth:
        • 58% of the growth was eLearning
    Source: SBCTC Data Warehouse
  • Washington CC e-Learning Growth
    • 111,000 students learn Online each year + 51,000 Hybrid (headcount)
    • Online learning is the most popular form of eLearning, comprising 65 percent.
      • up 20% growth
    • Hybrid courses (online + face-to-face) are growing rapidly.
      • 67% growth
    Source: SBCTC Data Warehouse
    • eLearning Growth …last 12 months
    Source: SBCTC Data Warehouse
  • See the train coming?. Will you stare at it like a deer looking into the headlights of an approaching car? Will you get run over or will you compete?
  • Survey of Online Learning Preparedness, 2010
    • Education Week/Blackboard
  • Survey Demographics
    • August 2010
    • 9400 responses, across all district sizes, and states
    • 18% from Superintendents and Asst. Superintendents
    • 12% from Directors of Curriculum or Instruction
    • 6% from district CTOs
    • 6% Director of Special Education or Pupil Services
  • Students are NOT able to take all the courses they want. “ lack of available staff”
  • Students need personalized pacing Students need more learning time outside school
  • Students need additional or alternative credit recovery opportunities
  • Your district meets students online learning needs Denial
  • Your districts wants to deliver courses virtually
  • Only non-consumers like the menu at the Disruptive Innovation restaurant
  • Project Tomorrow
    • Why are Students choosing online courses?
  • Why are Students Choosing Online Courses?
    • Earn college credit
    • Work at my own pace
    • Class not offered at my school
    • Complete HS requirements
    • Better fits my schedule
  • Online Course Non-Consumers
    • Orphan Courses
      • AP anything
      • World languages
    • Independent Study
    • Credit Recovery
    • College Credit
    • Summer School
    • Home School
  • Disrupting Class @ Online Courses
    • 2013: Tipping point
    • 2019: 50% of all
  • The US Market for Self-paced eLearning Products and Services: 2010-2015 Forecast and Analysis Ambient Insight Summary posted at T.H.E. Journal
  • Product Substitution
    • When consumers begin buying the disruption instead of the original product.
    • Virtual schools beginning to target core curriculum .
      • Instead of just offering courses to non-consumers.
  • Product Substitution
    • Budget cuts spur an increase in online students
    • Schools reducing spending on summer school and brick-and-mortar credit recovery.
      • Increased spending on self-paced products which are more cost efficient.
  • 2010-2015 Growth
  • How do you know if it’s any good?
  • Not everything you read on the Internet is true.
    • Or why all educational resources should be vetted.
  • Virginia Textbook Scandal
    • Our Virginia: Past and Present
      • 4 th grade history text
    • Black soldiers fought for the South
    • 6K died at the Battle of Bull Run
      • Actually, 22K
    • Hundreds of factual errors
  • Online Course Quality
    • Content standard/Common Core alignment
    • Are they approved by the:
      • NCAA
      • College Board
    • UC a-g requirements
  • Self- Reviewing Resources
    • Just like you do now for high school textbooks.
  • CCSESA TTSC Survey
    • Online Credit Recovery Programs
    • August 2010
  • Survey Class
    • 71 agencies
    • 45 districts
    • 20 county offices
  • Top Six Programs Used
    • Apex
    • Odysseyware
    • CyberHigh
    • Plato
    • E2020
    • Aventa
  • Describe the Selection Process
    • Vendor demonstrations
    • Committee review
    • Open bid to vendors
    • UC approved
    • Cost
  • Standards for Online Courses
    • Southern Regional Education Board
    • iNACOL
    • Texas Virtual School Network
    • Washington State Digital Learning Dept.
    • California Learning Resource Network
  • iNACOL/TxVSN/CLRN Online Course Standards
    • Content
    • Instructional Design
    • Student Assessment
    • Technology
    • Course Evaluation and Management
    • Professional Development and Technical Support
  • Content
    • Content depth and breadth
    • Information literacy skills
    • Learning resources and materials
    • Communication process between teachers, parents, and students
    • Content accuracy and bias
  • Instructional Design
    • Course design and organization
    • Meaningful and authentic learning experiences
    • Multiple learning paths for students to master the content
    • Higher-order thinking skills
    • Instructor-student and student-student interactions; and supplemental tools and resources.
  • Student Assessment
    • Alignment between the course goals and activities and its assessment strategies
    • Insure that there are adequate and appropriate methods to assess students
    • Assure that students are constantly aware of their progress.
  • Technology
    • Course architecture
    • User interface
    • Accessibility
    • Interoperability
  • Course Evaluation and Management
    • Evaluating course effectiveness
    • Course updates
    • Accreditation
  • Professional Development & Technical Support
    • PD regarding the online course delivery system
    • Technical support and course management assistance
    • PD in the behavioral, social, and emotional, aspects of online learning
    • Student orientation to prepare them to succeed in an online learning environment.
  • CLRN Online Course Reviews
    • CLRN will review HS ELA & Math courses beginning this summer.
    • Common Core and the original recipe standards.
  • Online Course Reviews
    • CLRN assembled online course stakeholder
      • Industry, curriculum, CDE, advocates
    • Met six times
    • Updated/supplemented iNACOL criteria
  • National Standards Update
    • Collaborated with Texas Virtual School Network
      • Accepted all of CA’s changes
      • Advocated iNACOL to update
    • CLRN/iNACOL collaborated to chair national standards update committee
  • National Standards Update
    • Group composed of industry, advocates, reviewers, and curriculum
    • Five online meetings scheduled
    • Sections A-D are now finalized.
      • Built into Standard A4 are CA’s Model Library Standards
  • CLRN Online Course Reviews
    • Publishers will submit course through CLRN system
      • Content standards correlation
      • Online standards correlation
      • Online course features
  • Two-part Review @ CLRN
    • Review site responsibility
      • Content standards alignment
      • Social content review
      • Minimum requirements
      • Many, but not all, online standards
    • CLRN Central reviews remainder of online standards
  • CLRN CHome Page Sign-in CLRN makes it easy for you to find standards-aligned online courses, Internet learning resources, software, and video. CLRN identifies and reviews thousands of Electronic Learning Resources (ELR) Online Courses (OCR), Web Information Links (WILs) and provides them in searchable databases. Browse thousands Web Information Links (WILs) of free primary, secondary, reference, Web 2.0, and open-source software resources. Our Electronic Learning Resource (ELAR) reviews provide detailed descriptions of data assessment and management resources that simplify delivery, aggregation, and disaggregation of assessment data. Online Courses (OCR) Basic Search English-Language Arts Mathematics Course Criteria QUICK SEARCH  Resources (ELRs)  Online Courses (OCRs)  Web Info Links (WILs)  Assessment Tools (ELARs) _______________ Search
  • OCR Basic Search Online Course Basic Search Please enter your search criteria below and click on the "Perform Search" button. You can expand your search results by choosing Expand my Search Results for the Search Type. Online Courses (OCR) Subject:  English-Language Arts  English-Language Arts Common Core  Mathematics  Mathematics Common Core Grade Level(s): ☐ 9 th ☐ 10 th ☐ 11 th ☐ 12 th Course Type: ☐ Online Course ☐ Blended/Hybrid Course Course Length: ☐ Semester ☐ Year Sign-in
  • Math Browse Online Courses(OCR) Mathematics Algebra I (3 resources) Trigonometry (1 resource) Geometry (1 resource) Linear Algebra (2 resources) Algebra II (1 resource) Probability and Statistics (0 resources) Calculus (2 resources) Advanced Placement Probability and Statistic s (1 resource) Note: show up to 20 recent reviews at the beginning until user clicks a subject at top. Note: clicking on subjects at top displays a list of just the resources for that subject. As with ELR, make CC reviews yellow. Click on a column header to re-sort by that column Compare Resource Title Grades Course Length Content Standards Online Standards Publisher Posted ☐ Advanced Algebra II 9,10,11,12 Year long 26 of 27 51 of 53 Connexions 8/11/2009 ☐ Calculus 9,10,11,12 Semester 31 of 32 45 of 53 David Guichard 8/11/2009
  • ELA Browse Online Courses (OCR) English-Language Arts Grade 9/10 (1 resource) Grades 11/12 (2 resources) Click on a column header to re-sort by that column Compare Resource Title Grades Course Length Content Standards Online Standards Publisher Posted ☐ Advanced Algebra II 9,10,11,12 Year long 26 of 27 51 of 53 Connexions 8/11/2009 ☐ Calculus 9,10,11,12 Semester 31 of 32 45 of 53 David Guichard 8/11/2009
  • Individual Course Review Brief Description Education2020’s English Language Arts 9/10 Bundle provides comprehensive coverage for the California English Language Arts Standards. The instructional content provides rigorous training in the foundations of English Language Arts skills and strategies. In addition, the program provides opportunity to learn and apply reading and comprehension strategies including visualizing, making inferences and predictions, and recognizing organizational patterns in online and offline texts. The program exposes students to a variety of contemporary and classic literature, expository test, drama, and poetry. Students receive hands-on training in applying the writing process, evaluating essays using the Six Traits of Effective Writing, and using MLA style and documentation. Support is provided for struggling students. Students compose and evaluate literary, persuasive, narrative, and informative essays. The program is dedicated to creating effective and adaptable readers, writers, and consumers of media, and has also infused the unit structure with lessons in 21st century skills, media literacy, and communication. Students progress through the lessons with a series of activities such as direct instruction videos by certified Online Course Education 2020 Language Arts Purpose Statement This semester length Online Course, aligned to the English-language arts Common Core Standards, is designed for students in grades 9-12. This course utilizes an online, remote teacher. Sign-in User Feedback Question Rating (1-4 stars) No. of Reviews User Recommended Met Expectations Engaging
      • All Educator Reviews | All Student Reviews
      • Share your opinion: Educator | Student
    View Each Section
    • Description
    • Content Standards
    • Online Standards
    • Profile
    • Abstract
    • Additional Features
    • Reviewer Notes
    • Publisher Information
    • Print Version
  • Feedback: Educator Q
  • Feedback Questions: Educator
    • Would you recommend this course to others?
    • To what extent does this online course meet your overall expectations?
    • To what extent does this course engage and maintain student interest?
    • To what extent did the online course generally enable students to meet course objectives?
  • Feedback Questions: Educator
    • To what extent does the online course need to be supplemented with face-to-face instruction and student support?
    • To what extent was ongoing and periodic student performance assessment accessible online for you to monitor student progress?
    • Please list the major strengths or specific improvements needed.
  • User Feedback: Complete Results Online Courses Title of Online Course: Complete Educator Feedback Results To sort reviews by category , click on the category in the header. School Type Reviewer Position Recommend Met Expectations Engaging Meet Objectives Face-to-face Accessible Assessment Strengths improvements
  • Feedback Questions: Student
  • What was the reason for taking this course?
    • Course was taken for credit recovery.
    • Course was a prerequisite for advanced level courses.
    • Course was required for graduation.
    • Course was not offered at school of attendance.
    • Course at school was unavailable due to scheduled conflict.
      • Other (explain)
  • Feedback: Students
    • Course procedures were clearly posted.
    • Necessary information and materials were received on time.
    • Instructions were clear for all materials and course activities.
    • Assignment and test grades were provided in a timely manner.
    • Instructor feedback was timely and frequent.
    • Students are offered an orientation
  • Feedback: Students
    • Course was well organized.
    • Activities supported course goals.
    • Course provided opportunities for students to learn from each other.
    • There were frequent tests and quizzes that reflected course content.
    • Discussion groups were generally well organized.
    • Course is appropriate for an online environment.
  • User Feedback: Complete Results Online Courses Title of Online Course: Complete Student Feedback Results To sort reviews by category , click on the category in the header. School Type Recommend Met Expectations Engaging Reason for Taking improvements Course Management Agree No. of Reviews Course procedures were clearly posted Necessary information and materials were received on time. Instructions were clear for all materials and course activities. Assignment and test grades were provided in a timely manner. Discussion groups were well organized. Instructor feedback was timely and regular. Course Organization Agree No. of Reviews Course was well organized. Course activities supported desired outcomes. Course provided opportunities for students to learn from each other Course activities engaged students in active learning that included authentic learning activities, collaborative learning, games or analysis. Students are offered an orientation to prepare them to succeed in an online learning environment.
  • Individual Course: Online Standards Display e2020 Online Courses (OCR) Sign-in View Each Section
    • Description
    • Content Standards
    • Online Standards
    • Profile
    • Abstract
    • Additional Features
    • Reviewer Notes
    • Publisher Information
    • Print Version
  • Individual Course: Features Online Courses(OCR) e2020 English Language Arts 9/10 Additional Features Sign-in Course Teacher This online course is designed to be supplemented by a face-to-face teacher. Instructional Design The resource enables or supports student-constructed or initiated projects or activities . The resource allows opportunities for student collaboration or cooperative learning . Assessment The resource monitors student, class or group progress in using the resource. The resource provides summative assessments if appropriate. The resource provides access for students to review their own progress in the resource. Universal Access Features Design principles for advanced learners. View Each Section
    • Description
    • Content Standards
    • Online Standards
    • Profile
    • Abstract
    • Additional Features
    • Reviewer Notes
    • Publisher Information
    • Print Version
  • Individual Course: Features cont Online Courses(OCR) e2020 English Language Arts 9/10 Additional Features Sign-in Technology The resource incorporates teacher-controlled features . The resource incorporates student-controlled features . Support Materials Professional development is available. Technical support is available. Internet Access Internet site provides for display of student work. Internet site provides collaborative features like e-mail, discussion groups, online mentors. View Each Section
    • Description
    • Content Standards
    • Online Standards
    • Profile
    • Abstract
    • Additional Features
    • Reviewer Notes
    • Publisher Information
    • Print Version
  • Individual Course: Profile e2020 English Language Arts 9/10 Profile Information Online Courses(OCR) Sign-in Catalogue Data Subject Area English-language arts Common Core Type Online Course Grade (s) 9, 10 Reading Level 9-12 Copyright Year 2010 Tech Support Phone (209) 555-1212 Instructional Data Course Type Blended/Hybrid Course Course Length Year Long Accreditation NCAA Approved Special Student Populations Features Transcripts available for video and audio files Alternative Description for graphics, maps, hyperlinks, etc Languages other than English View Each Section
    • Description
    • Content Standards
    • Online Standards
    • Profile
    • Abstract
    • Additional Features
    • Reviewer Notes
    • Publisher Information
    • Print Version
    Additional Catalogue Info Last Updated July 14, 2010 Copyright All Rights Reserved
  • Who are the Players?
    • From Keeping Pace 2010
  • State Virtual Schools
    • Run by a state education agency
    • Offering individual courses
    • State-wide reach
    • Florida Virtual School & Michigan Virtual School
  • State Virtual Schools
  • Multi-District Full-Time Online Schools
    • Charter or District Run
    • Offering Full Time Courses
    • State-wide Reach
      • California Virtual Academy
      • Oregon Connections Academy
      • Minnesota Virtual High School
  • Multi-district Full-Time Online Schools
  • Single District Programs
    • Run by a Single District
    • Full Time or Supplemental
    • Offering Courses only to District Students
  • Commercial Players
    • Florida Virtual School / Pearson
    • K12.com
      • Aventa
    • Connections Academy
    • Advanced Academics
    • Odysseyware
  • Florida Virtual School
    • Founded 1997
      • Internet-based public high school
      • FLVS gets the ADA
    • 100 courses available to all students in Florida
    • Licensed by Pearson in the other 49
  • FLVS Growth Data
  • K12.com Courses
    • Math
    • English
    • History
    • Science
    • World Languages
    • Electives
  • K.12 Math Courses
    • Math Foundations
    • Algebra I & II
    • Geometry
    • Pre-Calculus/Trig
    • AP Calculus
    • AP Statistics
    • Independent Study
      • $30/month
    • Teacher-supported
      • $375/semester
  • California Virtual Academy
    • Virtual charter school
    • 10, district sponsored charter schools around CA.
    • Curriculum provided by K12.com
  • Will Online Courses Put K-12 Schools Out of Business?
    • Stock Price
    • January 1999 – January 2011
    The Kodak Slide 92% decrease over 12 years This could be the trend line for your ADA the next 12 years. 1999: $63/share 1/2011: $5.50/Share
  • Established vs. Disruptive
    • Digital cameras destroyed Polaroid, Fuji, and nearly Kodak.
    • Charter school competition.
      • but, charter schools have boundaries
    • Online Schools- State-led Virtual Schools w/o boundaries.
  • Disruptive in Florida
  • 7K Students / No Teacher
    • 54 schools & 7,000 students
    • Virtual Classrooms/e-learning labs
    • 40 students. One class “facilitator.”
    • Curriculum from Florida Virtual School
  • New School Model?
    • ADA shift to schools that offer online courses
    • Small/rural districts must compete or lose students to online schools.
  • Play to your strengths
    • But prepare for the future.
    • What do you offer that online schools/courses can’t?
    • Non-consumer students at your school
      • Offer online courses that meet your students’ needs.
  • Product Substitution
    • When consumers begin buying the disruption instead of the original product.
    • Virtual schools beginning to target core curriculum .
      • Instead of just offering courses to non-consumers.
  • Product Substitution
    • Budget cuts spur an increase in online students
    • Schools reducing spending on summer school and brick-and-mortar credit recovery.
      • Increased spending on self-paced products which are more cost efficient.
  • The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning
    • January 2011
    • Michael Horn & Heather Staker
  • Blended Learning
    • Only 10% of students will join virtual schools.
    • Blended learning (blended/hybrid) will dominate
    • Six probable models
  • Six Blended Models
    • 1. Face-to Face Driver
      • Face-to-face teachers deliver most of the courses.
      • Teacher utilizes online learning on a case-by-case basis to supplement or remediate.
    • 2. Rotation
      • Students rotate on a fixed schedule between online learning and face-to-face.
  • Six Blended Models
    • 3. Flex
      • Online platform delivers most of the curriculum.
      • Teachers provide on-site support as-needed.
    • 4. Online Lab
      • Online platform delivers the entire course.
      • Paraprofessionals supervise.
  • Six Blended Models
    • 5. Self-Blend
      • Students choose to take one or more courses online to supplement the school’s catalog.
    • 6. Online Driver
      • An online platform and remote teacher delivers all the curricula.
      • Students work remotely.
  • Michael Horn
    • Schools teach using a monolithic batch system. When a class is ready to move on to a new concept, all students move on, regardless of how many have mastered the previous concept
    • If we want to educate every child to her maximum potential, we won’t get there with a system like this. Michael Horn
  • The Rise of K-12 Blended Learning
    • Online learning has the potential to be a disruptive force that will transform … America’s schools into a new model that is student-centric, highly personalized for each learner, and more productive, as it delivers dramatically better results at the same or lower cost.
      • Michael Horn
  • Horn @ CUE
    • Annual Computer Using Educators Conference
    • March 17-19
    • Michael Horn Keynote on March 18
  • SHORT-CIRCUITED: The Challenges Facing the Online Learning Revolution in California
  • Short Circuited
    • Governmental Red Tape
      • Mandating a 25:1 student-to-teacher ratio for virtual charter schools
    • Funding Disparity
      • Virtual Charter Schools receive 70% of ADA.
    • Union Opposition
    • Systemic Inertia and Dysfunction
      • School districts are often not interested in implementing online programs
  • 10 Reasons Why Students Prefer Learning Online
    • Virtual School Symposium Panel
  • 10 Reasons
    • I can sleep in.
    • I can pursue my passions.
    • I can focus on my work without distractions from my classmates.
    • I can move at my own pace.
    • I don’t have to compete to share my thoughts and ideas.
  • 10 Reasons
    • I can take more interesting classes.
    • I can learn with a schedule that meets my needs.
    • I can learn despite health issues that might get in a way of a traditional class setting.
    • I can easily communicate with my teacher when I need to.
    • I can easily communicate with my classmates whenever I want.
  • Links and Contact
    • http://brianbridges.org
  • Disruptive Content: The Online Course Revolution Brian Bridges Director, California Learning Resource Network