Paho Who Cville House Survey 2007

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A volunteer manual for ENVIRONMENT Tobago

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Paho Who Cville House Survey 2007

  1. 1. CHARLOTTEVILLE HOUSEHOLD SURVEY REPORT Tobago Wastewater Disposal System Improvement Program Pilot Project: Charlotteville, Tobago Collette River July 25th 2007 Submitted by: Hema Singh: Environment Tobago Ria Sooknanan- Maharaj: Environment Tobago 1
  2. 2. Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 3 PROJECT AREA 5 METHODOLOGY 9 RESULTS 10 ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 21 RECOMMENDATIONS 24 CONCLUSION 26 List of Figures Figure 1.0 Map of Tobago showing the Location of Charlotteville _________________ 6 Figure 1.1 Showing the Water in the Collette River Basin________________________ 7 Figure 1.2 Showing the Contours of the Project Area ___________________________ 8 Figure 1.3 Shows the Source of Water in the Dry Season _______________________ 11 Figure 1.4 Shows the Source of Water in the Wet Season _______________________ 11 Figure 1.5 Showing How Households Receive Water __________________________ 12 Figure 1.6 Shows Type & Quantity of Pets Kept ______________________________ 13 Figure 1.7 Showing Methods of Sewage Treatment ____________________________ 14 Figure 1.8 Showing the Age of Septic Tanks _________________________________ 15 Figure 1.9 Showing Tabular Record of Frequency of Septage Pumping ____________ 15 Figure 1.10 Showing Treatment of Grey Water _______________________________ 16 Figure 1.11 Showing Vehicle Washing Areas_________________________________ 17 Figure 1.12 Showing Frequency of Vehicle Washing___________________________ 17 Figure 1.13 Showing the Opinion on Sewage Waste Disposal____________________ 18 Figure 1.14 Showing the Level of Education _________________________________ 20 List of Appendices Appendix 1: Charlotteville Household Survey Questionnaire…….....28-31 Appendix 2: Terms of Reference…………………………………………32-33 Appendix 3:Map Data…………………………………………………….34-38 2
  3. 3. Introduction In Small Island Developing States human settlement tend to gravitate and expand along coastal areas. People are inclined to live in these areas because of the various opportunities that exist such as viable fishing and tourist hotspots. However, settlements bring with them a myriad of issues, one of which is the management of domestic waste from land based activities. Where there is unplanned development the challenge is usually linked to social, economic and environmental issues. Waste disposal infrastructure has been proven to be inefficient and unable to deal with human waste. Sewage disposal has been recognized as a major environmental concern in Tobago, the resulting pollution negatively impacts human health, tourism, coastal fisheries and coral reefs. In a report produced by Environment Tobago in 1999, it was found that samples obtained from the mouth of the Collette river contained faecal coliform (FC) -high of 3,100 per 100 ml). United States Environmental Protection Agency (recreational waters) states that the Logarithmic Mean of FC bacteria counts should not exceed 200 per 100ml, nor should 10% of total samples exceed 400 per 100ml. The conclusions drawn from this survey suggested that such high levels of FC found in the storm drains and street gutters, which all empty into the Collette river indicated that sewage is coming from residential pit latrines and septic tank/soakaways and, at that time, an operational pig farm. 1 In 2000 Environment Tobago with the support of the Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA), the Tobago House of Assembly (THA) Health Division and other agencies conducted the initial part of the Tobago Waste Water Disposal System Improvement Program (TWWDSIP): Pilot Project Charlotteville, Collette River and produced a survey report with their findings. The goal of this program is to “improve sanitation and environmental quality in a rural coastal area by developing and implementing a sustainable waste water disposal system (WWDS) that considers community, economic 1 Tobago Community Water Watch Network: Final Water Quality Survey Report July 1999. 3
  4. 4. and technical factors”.2 Trinidad and Tobago is bound by our international obligation to protect marine ecosystems when the Government of Trinidad and Tobago signed and ratified the Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider Caribbean (Cartagena, 1983).3 The survey was again conducted by Environment Tobago with the support of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). 2 Proposal: Tobago Wastewater Disposal Improvement Program. Environment Tobago: February 2000. 3 National Policy and Programmes on Wetland Conservation for Trinidad and Tobago, National Wetlands Committee, January 2002. 4
  5. 5. Project Area In 2000, the project steering committee chose Charlotteville as the location of the pilot project for the TWWDSIP. Consultations with various stakeholders which included a community consultation in Charlotteville and a volunteer recruiting meeting, the Collette river was selected as the specific site to carry out the project. The household survey was again carried out in this area in 2007 between June 4th and June 25th. This will provide an update to the last survey conducted and will now inform the other phases of the project. Charlotteville is a coastal village which lies on the northeastern tip of Tobago on Man-o- War Bay. The tourists visiting Charlotteville are mainly of two varieties, those interested in its pristine, rural setting and those who come to snorkel, sea bathe, fish and dive. An ecological survey conducted by the IMA in 1985 identified that the Man-o-War Bay contained one of the main reef systems in Northeast Tobago. The species diversity of coral and fish was also the highest in this area.4 4 Laydoo, R.S. 1985. Executive Summary. Ecological Survey of Reefs around Tobago. Institute of Marine Affairs, Trinidad and Tobago. 47 p. 5
  6. 6. Figure 1.0 Map of Tobago showing the Location of Charlotteville The topography of the area is hilly and in most instances characterized by a sharp descent to the coast. The Collette River begins approximately 500 ft above sea level. It descends gradually on a fairly straight course where it runs parallel between two prominent streets, Spring Street and Belle Aire Street. Where it nears the coastline it runs under Bay Street and out into Man-o-War Bay. See Figure 1.0 The primary economic activities are fishing and tourism. The household survey was conducted at establishments that drain into the Collette River. 6
  7. 7. Figure 1.1 below shows the water flow on land.5 Figure 1.1 Showing the Water Flow in the Collette River Basin 5 Environment Tobago- Tobago Community Water Watch Network 7
  8. 8. Figure 1.2 Showing the Contours of the Project Area Collette River 8
  9. 9. Methodology Flyers were placed in strategic locations in the Charlotteville village to advise residents of the survey. The survey was conducted by Ms. Hema Singh and Mrs. Ria Sooknanan-Maharaj. Data was collected over a three week period. The questions in the survey were both closed and open ended to permit a degree of flexibility and take into consideration perceptions and opinions. The purpose of the survey is to: determine the sources of household water find out the household uses for water identify the existing systems which treat both gray and black water in households reasonably quantify the volume of effluent leaving each household and entering the river identify other possible sources of contamination record income and education levels of the residents produce a map showing the location of each home and the method of sewage treatment Surveys were conducted seven days a week to ensure that the maximum number of households was covered. This method facilitated both working and non-working residents. A Global Positioning System (GPS) device was used to plot the location of the households surveyed. This information can later be used to estimate the proximity of households to the river. See Appendix 3. 9
  10. 10. Results The number of establishments which drain into the Collette River were identified as one hundred and twenty nine. No. of establishments interviewed - 95 This includes- 1 grocery, 4 shops, 4 restaurant/guest house No. of not interviewed due to absence - 34 Summary of the Built Environment in the Project Area No. of abandoned households – 9 No. of vacation homes – 5 No. of households under construction - 6 No. of guesthouses - 6 No. of groceries- 1 No. of shops - 4 Household Plots An estimation of the size of housing plot was done and this revealed that: 53% of the households interviewed lived on less than 5000 square feet of land 39% lived on approximately 5000 square feet and 8% lived on more than 5000 square feet of land Class of Dwelling 86.3% of the establishments interviewed lived in single family cottage 9.5% lived in a tenement 4.2% owned and lived in a guesthouse 10
  11. 11. Question 1: The average number of persons under the age of 18 per household is 1.4. The average number of persons 18 and older per household is 2.8. The number of establishments which rent to visitors numbered 4, which on average can accommodate 11.25 persons per establishment and are in use 9.5 months of the year. Question 2: Figure 1.3 1.4 illustrate the results to the question “What is the source of your water in the dry season and the wet season? Figure 1.3 Shows the Source of Water in the Dry Season Source of Water- Dry Season Spring Other Rain 8% 1% 10% River Well 6% 9% Rain River Dam Well Spring Other Dam 66% Figure 1.4 Shows the Source of Water in the Wet Season 11
  12. 12. Source of Water- Wet Season Other 2% Spring 3% Rain Well 19% 11% Rain River River 3% Dam Well Spring Other Dam 62% Question 3: Figure 1.5 illustrates the results obtained for the following question “How do you receive water at your home?” Figure 1.5 Showing How Households Receive Water How Households Receive Water Go to the source and fetch it from Spring □ or Rain River 16% 10% Water is piped into an outdoor holding tank Pipes 19% 55% 12
  13. 13. Question 4: When asked the question “Other than cooking, bathing, washing and flushing toilets, what do you use the water for?” 63% of the households indicated that they do not use water for anything else and 37% indicated that the only other use is to wet plants and 27% use water for their pets and 2% use water for domestic animals. Question 5: In response to “Do you keep any animals?” 98% of the households do not. 2% rear chickens and sheep. Question 5 (e): 91% of the households indicated that chickens live/roam near their home. The average number of chickens living/roaming per household per day was found to be 12.3. Question 5 (f): None of the households interviewed use water for gardening. Question 5 (g): 27% of the households have pets. Figure 1.6 shows the quantity and types of pets kept. Figure 1.6 Shows Type & Quantity of Pets Kept Types/Quantity of Pets Kept Rabbits, 13 Parrots, 1 Dogs, 33 Birds, 20 Cats, 9 13
  14. 14. Question 6: Figure 1.7 illustrates the responses received when asked “How is sewage waste (from toilet or latrine) from your home treated? Figure 1.7 Showing Methods of Sewage Treatment Sewage WasteTreatment Not Treated 0% Don't know 0% Pit Latrine 25% Septic tank 4% Septic tank and soakaway Soakaway 71% 0% Question 7: “If septic tanks, how long has it been in use?” For those households with septic tanks 80% were able to give an estimate of the number of years their tanks were in use. See Figure 1.8 below. 14
  15. 15. Figure 1.8 Showing the Age of Septic Tanks Age of Septic Tank Don't Know >20 Years in Use <20 <15 <10 <5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percentage For the households which has septic tanks, when asked if it was ever pumped out, 56% said “No”, 32% said “Yes” and 11% said they “Did not know”. For the households who answered “yes” the frequency of pumping was then asked; the results are shown below: Figure 1.9 Showing Tabular Record of Frequency of Septage Pumping Frequency No. of Households Once in 6 months 1 Once per year 1 Once in 2 years 5 Once in 3 years 2 Once in 4 years 1 Once in 7 years 1 Once in 8 years 1 Once in 10 years 5 Once in 12 years 2 Once in 14 years 2 Once in 20 years 1 Once in 35 years 1 15
  16. 16. The household which answered “no” they have never have their septic tanks pumped, the reasons are given below: 54% said that their septic tanks were NOT FULL. 25% said that their tanks were NEW and therefore did not require pumping. 21% indicated that they DID NOT KNOW why their tanks were never pumped. Question 8: Is there space available in your yard for a septic tank AND soakaway? 95% of the households said that there was space available for a septic tank and soakaway. 2% said there was not and 3%: Did not know”. Question 9: How is other wastewater (bathing, laundry, kitchen etc.) treated? In response to this question, 97% of households said that grey water entered the roadside canals, 2% drained into a soakage pit and 1% went directly into the Collette river. See Figure 1.10 below, Figure 1.10 Showing Treatment of Grey Water Treatment of Grey Water Percentage of Households 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Pit Latrine Septic Soakage Roadside Don't Other tank pit/ Canal Know Cesspit Treatment Question 10: Do you or anyone else in this household keep vehicle/s on property? 16
  17. 17. 29% of the households keep a vehicle on their property. For those who kept vehicles, Figure documents their response to the question, “where is/are the vehicles washed?” 25% of the households wash their vehicles near the river, 21% at the roadside next to their home, 18% wash it at the fisheries building on the waterfront of Man-o-War bay, 18% wash it at the standpipe, 11% at the spring and 7% “did not know”. See Figure 1.11 and 1.12 Figure 1.11 Showing Vehicle Washing Areas Vehicle Washing Areas 7 6 5 No. of 4 Households 3 2 1 0 r ge g ad ve ipe ri n ro no w Ri il la dp Sp 't K s /V St an the n rie On Do he Fis Area Figure 1.12 Showing Frequency of Vehicle Washing Frequency of Vehicle Washing don't know every two weeks Frequency 4 times/week Percentage three times/week No. of vehicles twice/week once/week once/day 0 10 20 30 40 Percentage 17
  18. 18. Question 11: Do you believe that sewage/waste water disposal in this area is carried out properly and safe for human health? Figure 1.13 illustrates the response of the households’ opinion on sewage disposal. Figure 1.13 Showing the Opinion on Sewage Waste Disposal Opinion On Sewage Waste Disposal Don't know 6% No 24% Yes No Don't know Yes 70% Question 12: If No, what do you think would help to improve sewage/waste water disposal in this area? See Figure for the responses give. It must be noted that 14% households gave suggestions and thoughts while 86% said they “did not know” what could be done improve sewage/waste water disposal in the area. 18
  19. 19. Number Responses 1 "If there is anything to be done, it should be done" "Authorities should have stricter laws, more pumping of 2 tanks" 3 “Provide finances to get toilet cleaned" 4 "Install more sewage tanks" 5 "Inform proper authorities" 6 "proper facilities put in place" "People have to get more serious about what is thrown in the 7 canal" 8 "Use the best thing to prevent pollution" 9 "use cesspit and soakaway" 10 "Underground canal" 11 "Clean septic tank more often" 12 "More septic tanks and soakaways" 13 "survey the land, better sewage plant" Question 13: How is the garbage from your household disposed of? 100% of households use garbage truck collection to dispose of solid waste. 4 out of the 95 households interviewed burned garbage. Question 14: Does your garbage that is put out for collection contain disposable diapers? 23% of the households said that their garbage contained disposable diapers and 77% did not. Question 15: What was the last school you attended, including any trade school or university? Figure 1.14 depicts the responses received for the above question. 19
  20. 20. Figure 1.14 Showing the Level of Education Level of Education 3% 2% Pimary 39% Secondary University/College 56% Not disclosed Question 16: What is your household's monthly income level? Income Level 59% of households earn less than TT$3000.00 37% earn more than TT$3000.00 4% did not disclose their monthly income 20
  21. 21. Analysis and Discussion Human settlement in coastal areas is an inevitable occurrence in small island states. Coastal zone management has always been a challenge especially where the propensity for pollution of the coastal waters is higher through improperly managed land based activities. Harmonizing the social and economic needs of the communities with the natural resources available to support these very needs without overuse or abuse can be a difficult equilibrium point to reach. Limitations of the Survey Every attempt has been made to learn and improve on the last survey administered in this pilot project however, below are some of the limitations during this updated survey: Question 3: The question “How do you receive your water at your home?” should have included another option : fetching water from standpipes. Question 16: This question in addition to asking the household’s monthly income should have also asked what was the estimated household expenditure as well. This would give an indication of how much income was left for any other expense/s. Another question should have been included in question 7 for those households with pit latrines to ask whether there were any intentions in the close future (year) to build a septic tank and soakaway. This is important for future planning. Survey Analysis and Discussion The residents of the Collette river region lived in low income houses with 53% living on less than 5000 square feet of land; however a large percentage (86%) owned the houses in which they lived. The majority of the residents have access to pipe born water, received via pipes connected to a dam or well in the village, in both the wet and dry season. At higher elevations there is still a problem of accessibility to a regular supply of water via pipes and some residents are still dependant on water from the rain which they 21
  22. 22. store in tanks or collect water from the nearest standpipe or the river itself. Generally, the uses of water are largely confined to flushing toilets and other household uses. There are no gardens and only 2% of households keep a few animals. The number of chickens observed roaming in the area is a possible source of pollution by the sheer quantity. Solid Waste Disposal 100% of the population bag their garbage and utilize the services of garbage collection either at covered bins placed in strategic locations (for areas where garbage truck cannot access) or at their homes. This significantly reduces the chance that significant pollution is a result of leachate produced when garbage is left open to rainfall. Black Water Disposal It is encouraging to note that 75% of households dispose of sewage waste using a septic tank and that the majority (71%) also have soakaways. The age of septic tanks ranged from under five years to over twenty years. 56 % of the households indicated that their septic tanks were indeed pumped, however, the frequency of pumping was limited to, in many cases, one time in 15 to 20 years. For those who had never had their septic tanks pumped there was the overriding belief that the tanks were not full. This is a source of pollution: 1) because the contours of the land being so steep runoff in heavy rainfall would not have the time to attenuate and percolate in the soil but would accelerate toward the nearest drains and then eventually drain into the river 2) there is no certainty that the septic tanks and soakaway system were built soundly in the first place and will function properly to degrade and purify sewage 3) the residents do not recognize that there is a sewage problem and therefore maintenance of the systems, as evidenced by their response to having the tanks pumped, is not a priority 22
  23. 23. 25% of the households use pit latrines which are located in very close proximity to either drains or the Collette river itself. The source of pollution arises in cases where the filtration systems have not been correctly built and therefore untreated sewage finds its way either into underground water or terrestrial drainage systems. Grey Water Disposal Treatment of grey water in the area surveyed is cause for concern. 98% of the households indicated that their water from laundry, kitchen and bathing flow into roadside canals, untreated. Grey water is most likely the largest source of waste water contamination of the Collette River and the Man-o-War Bay. The crucial consequence of this is the potential damage to the reef ecosystem from nutrient overload. Other areas of concern are the effects on the tourism industry and the vibrant fishing industry, Charlotteville is, after all a fishing village. The number of vehicles in the area and the washing of these in rivers and the roadside coupled with the frequency of washing is another source of grey water contamination which must be monitored. Further, whether the vehicles are washed near or in the river, at the roadside next to their home or at the fisheries building opposite the bay, the water which will inevitably contain oil residue beside the detergent composition, will be deposited in the bay. Socio-economic Assessment It is interesting to note that 70% of the households remain oblivious to the threat of sewage contamination. When asked what can be done to improve the sewage disposal in the area, only 14% offered suggestions, 86% indicated that they “did not know”. 56% of the households surveyed had a primary school level of education. It is evident that more education is necessary to raise awareness. 59% of the households earn less than $3000.00 per month. This consideration is necessary to determine the affordability of any recommended system. 23
  24. 24. Recommendations Domestic wastewater management is a key element for the protection of marine and coastal resources which support communities and can have a number of benefits which include the following: • Public Health Protection; • Food Security; • Biodiversity and Conservation; • Recreational Value; • Economic Development Since domestic wastewater impacts so many areas, it shows that its management cannot be isolated. It must be done within a larger context of Integrated Coastal Zone Management which suggests that the management of human activities must also simultaneously be done. Based on the analysis and discussion given in the previous section the following are our recommendations: 1. The individual assessment of existing sewage treatment facilities at every household must be undertaken. This is necessary to determine whether systems are fully functional or not. If necessary malfunctioning systems must be repaired, rebuilt or relocated. 2. New treatment systems must be assessed and approved before construction and commissioning. 3. Yearly inspection and monitoring of treatment systems must be put in place. 4. It is recommended that a geological survey be conducted to determine ground water levels and soil composition, permeability, factors affecting groundwater flow and if in fact pathogens, consistent with sewage contamination, exist in the groundwater. 5. Grey water disposal is the major challenge and therefore these should be treated using the septic tanks and soakaways with grease trap systems in place. 6. The sewage treatment system chosen for this area must be one that is affordable to the residents and also the best practicable environmental option. 24
  25. 25. 7. Finally and probably the most important part of this assessment is the need for an education programme which will raise awareness in this community. There is a blatant need to encourage a behavioural change so that residents can find the link between the protection and conservation of their environment and their social and economic well being. 25
  26. 26. Conclusion This study has confirmed the need for an effective sewage pollution management plan in the project area. There is an urgent need to address pollution caused by untreated grey water being discharged into the Collette river and entering the Man-o-War Bay. This bay supports Charlotteville’s two main economic activities, fishing and tourism. It is also an area of high biological diversity, the loss of which the village can scarce afford. It is hoped that the successful implementation of this pilot project will later incorporate the entire Charlotteville area. 26
  27. 27. Appendix 1 Charlotteville Household Survey Questionnaire Tobago Waste Water Disposal System Improvement Programme Introduction: Hello My name is ………………. I am a member of a team currently working on a pilot project to reduce sewage pollution from households in Tobago. This is an up-date of a survey Environment Tobago conducted in 2000 in Charlotteville. This survey is again being carried out by Environment Tobago with the support of the Pan American Health Organisation (PAHO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO). Project Background: Several studies of coastal areas in Tobago show that sewage is causing pollution by dirtying our rivers and beaches. Sewage pollution can cause human health problems such as infections of the eyes, skin and also gastrointestinal problems. It can also harm tourism and fisheries. We therefore need to develop solutions for reducing sewage pollution in coastal communities. To do this we require information on how we dispose of our wastes. This information will be used towards designing suitable and affordable sewage disposal systems. Your assistance in answering some questions about your household will be sincerely appreciated. YOU DO NOT HAVE TO GIVE YOUR NAME. ALL THE INFORMATION COLLECTED WILL BE TREATED CONFIDENTIALLY. Name of Street: ____________ Building Number: ____________ Estimated Size of Housing Plot: _____________ (<5000sq.ft., 5000sq. ft., >5000 sq.ft) Class of Dwelling: Tenement Single family cottage 1. a) How many people under the age of 18 live in this house? _______ b) How many people age 18 and older? _______ c) Is your property ever rented to visitors Yes  No If Yes, approximately how many people can it accommodate? ______ Approximately how many months of the year is it in use? ______ 2. What is the source of your water (i.e. where does it come from?). 27
  28. 28. In the dry season a) Rain  b) River  c) Dam  d) Well  e) Spring  f) Other  (please specify) ____________ In the wet season a) Rain  b) River  c) Dam  d) Well  e) Spring  f) Other  (please specify) ____________ 3. How do you receive water at your home? a) Go to the source and fetch it from Spring  or River  b) Pipes c) Water is piped into an outdoor holding tank d) Rain 4. Other than cooking, bathing, washing and flushing toilets, what do you use your water for? ______________________________________________ 5. Do you keep any animals? Yes  No  If “Yes”, then answer the following: e) Pigs If Yes, how many? ________ b) Cattle If Yes, how many? ________ c) Sheep If Yes, how many? ________ d) Goats If Yes, how many? ________ e) Do chickens live/roam near your home? Yes  No  If Yes, how many ________ f) Do you use water for gardening? Yes  No  If Yes, what is the size of the garden plot? _________ g) Do you have pets? Yes  No  Dogs, how many? _______ Cats, how many? ________ 28
  29. 29. h) Other and how many(Please specify) _________ 6. How is sewage waste (from toilet or latrine) from your home treated? a) Pit latrine b) Septic tank c) Soakaway d) Septic tank and soakaway e) Not treated f) Don’t know 7. If septic tank, then how long has it been in use? _____________ Don’t Know  Has it ever been pumped out? Yes  No  Don’t Know  If Yes, how often is it pumped out? ____________ If No, why hasn’t it been pumped out? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 8. Is there space available in your yard for a septic tank AND soakaway? Yes  No  Don’t Know  9. How is other wastewater (bathing, laundry, kitchen, etc.?) treated? a) Pit latrine b) Septic tank c) Soakage pit/cesspit d) Roadside canal e) Don’t Know f) Other (Please specify) ______________ 10. Do you or anyone else in this household keep vehicle/s on property? Yes  How many? ______ No  If Yes, where is/are the vehicle/s washed? ____________ How often? ______________ 11. Do you believe that sewage/waste water disposal in this area is carried out properly and safe for human health? Yes  No  Don’t Know  29
  30. 30. 12. If No, what do you think would help to improve sewage/waste water disposal in this area? _______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________ 13. How is the garbage from your household disposed of? a) Burning  b) Composting  c) Burying  d) Garbage truck collection  14. Does your garbage that is put out for collection contain disposable diapers? Yes  No  Finally, we would like to ask you a few questions about your income and education. Although you may choose not to answer them, they would be helpful in deciding what solutions would be most suitable to improve sewage treatment and disposal in your village. 15. What was the last school you attended, including any trade school or university? a) Primary  b) Secondary  c) University/College  16. What is your household’s monthly income level? Under $3000 per month  Above $3000 per month  Thank you for taking the time to assist with this project. 30
  31. 31. Appendix 2 Terms of Reference 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Appendix 3 MAP DATA 33
  34. 34. 34

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