E T Newsletter Dec 2008


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Environment Tobago Newsletter December 2008

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E T Newsletter Dec 2008

  1. 1. Environment TO BAGO new slett er E Volume 2 Issue 4 December 2008 n vi r on m e n t TO- BAGO (ET) is a non- government, non-profit, vol- The Twelve Days of Christmas unteer organisation , not subsidized by any one group, Environment TOBAGO corporation or government body. Founded in 1995, ET is a On the first day of Christmas E-Tech gave to me Cove Industrial Estate. proactive, advocacy group that campaigns against nega- This was an area of 143 acres of wood & scrub and wetland, a natural home for 56 va- tive environmental activities rieties of birds one of them – a grey heron not spotted since 1895, very rare. throughout Tobago. We achieve this through a variety On the second day of Christmas they cleared every tree. of community an environ- There were a number of very old & beautiful trees on this land. Most of them were mental outreach programmes. marked to be preserved. However they were all cut down & burnt – which was an Environment TOBAGO is “accident” funded mainly through grants On the third day of Christmas an enormous drain was installed. and membership fees. These This is to stop the land from flooding as there are no trees to absorb water. No filtra- funds go back into implement- ing our projects. We are tion pond erected to facilitate water runoff; a “lake” has therefore formed alongside grateful to all our sponsors the drain. The installation of a large pump is facilitating this process. It is becoming a over the years and thank them for their continued breeding ground for mosquitos. support On the fourth day of Christmas drainage opened to the sea The aim is for the water from the drainage system to enter the sea, mixing with sea water & smothering the pristine Cove reefs. On the fifth day of Christmas WASA damaged for me the Flying Reefs. Although “unfortunate” this is necessary to run a pipe out to sea to dispose of waste W hat’s inside waterfor the new sewage system. On the sixth day of Christmas the mangrove in Bon Accord was filled in The Twelve Days of 1 This area included in the Buccoo Marine Park- Environmentally Sensitive Area- ESA. Christmas “NO NET LOSS OF WETLANDS” in development is our government policy. On the seventh day of Christmas a New Years resolution- Solve Studley Pilot project: Belle 2 Garden Waterland Park Landfill. This toxic situation- leachate destroying reefs, the flies and odours affecting the resi- My visit to Surinam 5 dents. Watch out for those 5 On the eighth day of Christmas my government plans for me a new jetty at fire ants! Charlotteville. Tobago spider survey This will bring in huge cruise liners with hundreds of passengers who will then be taken 6 in maxi taxis to other parts of the island. This will bring in little to no revenue for the Science, Technology 6 village & will clog the roads so nobody else can get in or out. The social impact will be and Media conference enormous. Not to mention the damage to the marine environment both during con- Book Review 7 struction and post construction from gasoline and bilge water. What’s Happening @ 9 On the ninth day of Christmas WASA wants to give to me two desalination ET plants. Notes to One at Charlotteville & one at Cove. We have enough wells & water for years to 10 contributors come. The damage to land & sea will be enormous. Reservoirs need to be cleaned and greater holding capacity added.
  2. 2. Page 2 Environment TOBAGO newsletter On the tenth day of Christmas a hunter brought for me a “gouti” and a “tattoo”. If hunting in and out of season continues at the current rate there will be no iguana, turtles, hammerhead sharks to hunt. Photos will be the only memories your children will have of our wildlife. On the eleventh day of Christmas, an industrious resident brought for December 2008 Kilgwyn-3 derelict cars and a broken gate After 2 years of cleaning this wetland and removing 250 tons of solid waste- all Editor: by volunteers from every walk of life in Tobago. Fish and birds had returned. WHY? Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal On the twelfth Day of Christmas –Revelry abounded, with deafening caca- Assistant Editor: Christopher Starr phony we celebrate. Design & Layout: We are all tone deaf in this country. The noise pollution laws ignored. No one to en- Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal force the law. A total lack of concern or consideration for neighbours, babies and the Technical Support: elderly. We cannot celebrate anything without a music level that causes palpitations. Nolan Craigwell, Jerome Ramsoondar Sleep is a thing of the past. Nigel Austin Enid Nobbee Contributors: Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal Christopher Starr Coming to your reefs soon—Beware Hema Singh Environment TOBAGO Environment TOBAGO The lion fish although beautiful is also dangerous. It originates from the Pa- Photographs: Hema Singh cific & Indian Ocean’s but due to releases from aquariums in the USA it has now in- Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal vaded the Caribbean’s warm waters. The Pacific Lionfish reproduces rapidly & can grow up to 18 inches in length. Each of the feathery spines is venomous. These fish are voracious predators & can Board of Directors eat any prey up to half their own body size including fish & crustaceans. They corner 2007-2008 their prey using their large fins & with quick reflexes will swallow the fish. No matter President:: the size of the fish, if they can get it in their mouth they will eat it. Lionfish have few if Patricia Turpin any predators in the Caribbean, though grouper have been documented to have Vice-President: eaten lionfish in the Bahamas. Lionfish are also Kamau Akili cannibals. Secretary: But why do we need to worry? Be- Kay Seetal Treasurer: cause studies are showing that Lionfish can im- Shirley Mc Kenna pact native species, including commercially valu- Committee members: able fish, at rates faster than native fish can re- Wendy Austin cover. The Lion fish has already reached the William Trim Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, Cayman, Jamaica, Fitzherbert Phillips Geoffrey Lewis Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic & Virgin Is- Bertrand Bhikkary lands. They have also just arrived in Belize & Heather Pepe researchers are collecting information & trying Ryan Allard to prepare for the spread of this fish through Lion fish David Antoine Andy Roberts the greater Caribbean. This is what we should © 2008 Wikipedia.com be doing in Tobago as it will not be that long before they reach here. To view a map of the rapid expansion, visit hhtp:// fl.biology.usgs.gov/lionfish_progression/lionfish_progression.html This fish may not only wipe out our fish stocks but can also be harmful to humans. If one is stung, symptoms can include extreme pain, headaches, vomiting & breathing difficulties. Any wound should be treated straight away with hot water &
  3. 3. Volume 2 Issue 4 Page 3 emergency medical advice should be taken. We need to keep a very close watch for these fish and as soon as one is spot- ted it should be reported to a group called “REEF”. They will want the day, time, loca- tion and size of the fish and will help organize a collection and removal effort. The only upside to this is that these fish are edible. Only the spines are venom- ous and once they have been cut off—very carefully—the fish can then be cooked at very high temperatures and they are supposed to taste good. Restaurants in the Baha- mas are currently serving Lionfish on their menus as a way to help reduce the popula- tions. There are very few species of anything that we should hunt to extinction but this is one of them. To save your fish please KEEP A WATCH AND REPORT any sightings to REEF. You will find a form on http://www.reef.org/programs/exoitc/report. You can also pick up additional information on REEF’s website which is http://www.reef.org/ programs/exotic/lionfish. MISSION STATEMENT e-Parliament - Legislators from around the world meet in Tobago E nvironment TOBAGO conserves Tobago’s Environment TOBAGO natural and living resources and advances Meeting to discuss energy priorities in the era of climate change a ground- the knowledge and breaking global meeting took place in Tobago. Legislators from African and Pacific na- understanding of such tions joined their Caribbean colleagues to discuss how to provide energy for the poor resources, their wise while also combating climate change. Legislators from Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Uganda, and sustainable use and Tanzania, Solomon Islands, their essential Kiribati and Samoa joined colleagues from Trinidad, Jamaica, Guyana, relationship to human Dominican Republic, the Bahamas and Barbados to hear presentations about renewable health and the quality of energy and extending the electricity grid to outlying districts. life They were addressed by John Agard, professor of marine and environmental sciences at the University of the West Indies, who was a lead author for the Small Islands chapter of the recently released Fourth Assessment Report of the Inter- Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). He told the legislators how climate change and the resulting sea-level rise could have a profound and dangerous impact in Africa and on the small island states of the Caribbean and Pacific, where many islands are at risk of total submersion. “Our countries are not major polluters but no-one should underestimate the dangers that we face,” he said. “Climate change could result in major sea-level rise – much greater than the IPCC projections. There are already clear signs that we will face more extreme weather conditions, rising prices and diffi- culties in producing food.” The parliamentarians who participated in this high-level global hearing heard how large amounts of power can be generated using existing renewable technologies: solar, wind, tidal and hydro as well as biomass and geothermal. Nowhere in the world are these being exploited to their full potential. “Undoubtedly we do not make suffi- cient use of renewable sources of power in the Caribbean,” said Dr Indra Haraksingh, Physicist at University of the West Indies and President of Caribbean Solar Energy So- ciety. “We live in a region which is famous for its sunshine and for its cooling breezes and yet we use fossil fuels to power our homes and our industry. This is beginning to look dangerously out of date especially in the context of the extreme vulnerability of
  4. 4. Page 4 Environment TOBAGO newsletter the small island developing states.” Dr Haraksingh has recently been looking into the potential for using geothermal power and last week visited a plant in Nevis which is being developed to provide elec- tricity for the island. “Geothermal has great potential on Nevis,” she said, “It could gen- erate as much as 900 megawatts. “The initial plan is to sell power to St Kitts but then to run high voltage direct current cables to export electricity to St Maarten and the US Virgin Islands.” The hearing in Tobago did not just focus on generating electricity. There was also dedi- cated time to working out how parliaments can provide incentives to promote the tran- sition to renewables and how parliaments can learn from each other by sharing good practice on energy-efficiency as well as energy generation. One energy saving measure that will receive attention is the initiative by the Ghanaian parliament to distribute free fluorescent lightbulbs. The government spent $12 million on these lightbulbs, saving so much electricity that it avoided building a new power station – which would have cost $300 million. The Tobago hearing was the third in a series of nine international hearings which saw legislators from Africa, Caribbean and Pacific island countries engage in a comprehensive study of what they can do to address climate change. At a hearing in Kenya in June, legislators expressed particular interest in generating electricity from geo- thermal sources – having found out that the Rift Valley has the capacity to generate as much as 9 gigawatts of power. In West Africa in September, the MPs heard how the combination of solar and wind energy was sufficient to satisfy the needs of the whole region provided the West African nations were linked by a “supergrid” of high voltage direct current cables (HVDC). The hearings are being organised by the e-Parliament which endeavours to spread good policy ideas around the world – particularly to address climate change. “Solutions to the climate and energy crises are urgently needed, and there is no need and no time for different parliaments to reinvent the wheel,” said Jesper Grolin, execu- tive director of the e-Parliament. Sharing best practice policy solutions is in itself a step “ To many people t hes e t all pe aks mak e for a challe ngi ng but sce nic hike. B ut t hey are not j ust anot her t all mount ai n to clim b. ” forward. ”There is no shortage of technologies that solve the climate and energy crises, it is all a matter of political will. This is why international parliamentary hearings are es- sential for us to take decisive steps to control climate change.” My trip to Suriname Hema Singh Environment TOBAGO Klaaskreek is a village on the bank of the Suriname River. It is a one to one and a half hours drive from Paramaribo, Suriname’s capital city. If you do not mind the bumpy ride, it is a place of overwhelming natural beauty, enhanced even more by the warmth of its inhabitants. Klaaskreek is one of thirty villages founded after the transmigration of the six- The mode of trans- ties. The inhabitants originate from Ganzee, a village which is now at the bottom of the port on the Suriname Bronkopondo Lake. The Bronkopondo Lake in Suriname is a water reservoir created to River provide energy to a bauxite plant. The Stichting Toerisme Ontwikkeling Klaaskreek (STOK) or Foundation for Tourism Development Klaaskreek was founded in 2007. The aim of the foundation is to develop a tourist friendly beach and the surrounding area, to conserve and promote
  5. 5. Volume 2 Issue 4 Page 5 the Saramaccan culture. The foundation also aims to improve the socioeconomic condition of the inhabitants. Visitors to Bena Beach can expect to to- tally immerse themselves in the Saramaccan cul- ture- participate in the making of cassava bread in an outdoor fireplace, sit undisturbed in a ham- mock in a hut on the river bank or taste the deli- cious soup made from plantains and drink the fra- grant juice of ginger root. The Suriname river is The locals’ welcome in song irresistible in the humid atmosphere. For the more adventurous a tour down the river to see A young girl takes part in the special ceremony which cele- neighboring villages can be arranged. STOK demonstrates a sustainable tourism initiative which is underpinned by an brates her womanhood. even deeper respect for their natural environment and culture. Tourism of this sort is exemplary and should be encouraged through- out the region to reduce the negative impacts associated with mass tourism. The concepts of limits, equity, and futurity should always be at the forefront of tourism development and not only economic prosperity. An elderly woman making cassava bread Special ceremony to celebrate a young girl’s womanhood—procession “ the presence of FP may be an indication, an "early warning system", that our seas are polluted and that environmental changes are affecting the ability of wild animals to resist infectious diseases” Watch out for those Fire Ants! Jo-Anne Nina Sewlal Dept of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies Fire ants (Solenopsis sp.) give a painful sting which gives the sensation of being burned by fire, hence the common name. Fire ants are also called red ants. You can tell them apart from other species by their copper colour, while workers can be black or red and can be 2 to 6 mm in length. But all sizes can be found in a single nest. These ants prefer to nest usually in moist soil along river banks, pond edges and lawns. One does not usually notice their nests as they are usually under objects like rocks, logs or pavers. But in open areas they build mounds up to 40 cm high. Hence, you are most likely to encounter them in your garden or while hiking. You usually get stung when you inadvertently stand on their nest and they start to swarm all over you. When you move then they attack. When one bites they secrete a pheromone signalling to the others to do the same. The result is many painful and irritat- ing bumps which form white pustules which can get infected and can heal to form scars. So how to avoid all this? First be very careful when hiking and gardening, do not only look that the trees and animals around but down on the trail as well. If you are stung, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids can help with the itching. However, if you have a serious allergic reaction you should consult a doctor.
  6. 6. Page 6 Environment TOBAGO newsletter Scientists from Smithsonian and UWI collaborate for biodiversity survey of Tobago spiders In September a team of scientists from the Smithsonian Institution in Wash- ington, D.C. and the University of the West Indies, led by Mr. Dave Hardy con- ducted a three-week biodiversity survey of the spider fauna of Tobago and Little Tobago. A wide variety of habitats were sampled both natural and those that are influenced or created by human activities. Other members of the team include Dana Deroche, Jo-Anne Sewlal, and Dr. Christopher Starr. Mr Hardy has worked relentlessly at documenting the flora and fauna of Tobago for the past 40 years. Although he has participated in the collection of a wide variety of organisms from the island, Hardy’s area of expertise includes, fishes, reptiles and amphibians and he and his research teams have found many new species during his numerous visits. DeRoche works as a museum technician at the Research team (L-R): Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C. in the department of Entomology and has Dave Hardy, Dana accompanied expeditions to Thailand and French Guiana. Deroche, Jo-Anne From the University of the West Indies, is Dr. Christopher Starr, a senior Sewlal & Christopher lecturer with over 30 years experience in entomology. Also from UWI is Jo-Anne Starr Sewlal, a PhD student in arachnology and in addition to her research in Trinidad and Tobago, her current research has resulted in the sampling and documentation of the spider fauna of other islands in eastern Caribbean; St. Kitts, Nevis, Antigua, Anguilla, Grenada and St. Vincent. Both UWI scientists comprise the editorial team for the Environment TOBAGO newsletter. Conference - “Science, Media and Society: Towards more effective communication” The two-day regional conference - “Science, Media and Society: Towards more effective communication” – hosted by NIHERST–UTT, in collaboration with SciDev.net and the OAS in Latin America and the CCST was held on 24 and 25th November, 2008 at the Crowne Plaza Hotel, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad. It was attended by Jo-Anne Sewlal and Christopher K. Starr both of the editorial team of the ET newsletter, and from the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine. Other participants included journalists both local, which included those from newspapers, radio and television and foreign from such countries as Mexico and Brazil, as well as scientists, science communicators and educators, both local and regional. Keynote addresses were given by Brian Trench, a distinguished international science communications expert based at Dublin City University, and Dr. Luisa Mas- sarani, the Latin American and the Caribbean coordinator of SciDev.Net, which is a website based in London. This NGO is dedicated to providing reliable information on science and technology in the developing world. Mrs. Maureen Man- A series of practical group exercises and lectures spanning the two days, al- chouck NIHERST, intro- ducing a panel discussion lowed participants to explore practical ways of improving communication between dis- at the conference. ciplines in science and technology and the media. Panel discussions were also included where issues on science, media and society were debated. Studies on the inclusion of science in a variety of newspapers in both Latin America and Latin Caribbean were also analysed and it was proposed that a similar study be conducted in this country. It was hoped that future conferences on this topic would strengthen the ties and develop a better understanding between science, technology and the media.
  7. 7. Volume 2 Issue 4 Page 7 Book Review: DEEP DOWN IN THE JUNGLE Review of William Beebe's Guyana books: 1918. Jungle Peace. New York: Henry Holt 297 pp. 1921. Edge of the Jungle. Garden City, NY: Garden City 303 pp. 1925. Jungle Days. New York: G.P. Putnam 201 pp. [Thirteenth in a series on "naturalist-in" books.] Christopher K. Starr Dept of Life Sciences, University of the West Indies ckstarr99@hotmail.com C. William Beebe (1877-1962), at one time the most famous American natural- ist, is the subject of two full-length biographies (Gould 2004, Welker 1975). He is well known here as the founder of the Simla research station in the Arima Valley of Trinidad. For about 60 years Beebe worked at the New York Zoological Society (NYZS), which not only managed the Bronx Zoo but had a substantial research programme. He was a strong believer that tropical biology was best pursued through varied, long-term studies at permanent, well-equipped stations. In 1916 the NYZS established a Tropical Research Station on the Mazuruni River of Guyana, between where the Cuyuni empties into the Mazuruni and where the Mazuruni joins the mighty Essequibo. This was, then, very much in a land of rivers. By this I mean real rivers, the kind that can float boats, with big islands in them, not the tinkling little brooks that witty Trinibagonians call rivers. Furthermore, it was only about 65 km from the sea, so that tides were an important factor. The station was in time devalued by degradation of the surrounding area, but for a decade it was probably the single most productive site for tropical research. These three books are a selection of Beebe's writings from this period. Most chapters first appeared as popular articles in the Atlantic Monthly magazine. With few exceptions, they are reports from the field, not reminiscences from back in New York. Together with “Butterflies doing the books of Bancroft (1769), Rodway (1894) and Hingston (1932) and a multi-author strange things in collection of studies (Beebe et al. 1917), they are part of a rich literature on Guyana's very beautiful ways natural history. A fourth book of similar title and thrust (Beebe 1949) is set at Rancho were on my mind Grande in Venezuela, a successor to the Guyana station. when I sat down, Beebe went to the tropics at a time when they had a reputation as dangerous, but by the time my pestilential places. He vigorously refuted this nonsense and counterposed his own view pen was uncapped of the rain forest as not only filled with wonders but relatively benign. The title of the my thoughts had first book, Jungle Peace, reflects this view. At the same time he took a thoroughly unsen- shifted to rocks. ” timental view of predation and parasitism as key parts of the natural order. And a chap- ter in Jungle Days on "The Life of Death", for example, treats the plants and animals found in the crown of a newly-fallen giant tree and the succession of organisms on it as it decays. Beebe is not always careful with his identifications. In Edge of the Jungle, for ex- ample, we find a flabbergasting passage, some pages long, about a wayside weed being mauled by leaf-mining caterpillars, which in turn are attacked by a parasitic wasp, with no attempt to identify any of them. This, I fear, is little better than travel literature. Still, he more than makes up for such lapses with his hard-core approach to nature -- when he wanted to know what it was like to be bitten by a vampire bat, he did what any real naturalist would do and slept with a foot exposed -- and original viewpoints. He does not take things for granted, as seen, for example, in his characterization of sleep as "one of the romances of existence, and not by any chance the simple necessity that it is re- puted to be."
  8. 8. Page 8 Environment TOBAGO newsletter Each chapter has a well-defined theme. An especially striking feature is the way Beebe opens many chapters with an image that puzzles and grabs. The puzzlement has to do with the subject of the chapter, which Beebe is prepared to reveal to us, but not just yet. Beebe sets a leisurely pace and often takes a while to come to the point. To me, this is part of the charm, like a column by Wayne Brown that gives no forwarding address until he is good and ready. "Butterflies doing strange things in very beautiful ways were on my mind when I sat down, but by the time my pen was uncapped my thoughts had shifted to rocks." [Okay. Now, is this going to be about butterflies, rocks or something else? "A most admirable servant of mine once risked his life to reach a magnificent Bornean orchid, and tried to poison me an hour later when he thought I was going to take the plant away from him. This does not necessarily mean that we should look with suspicion upon all gardeners and lovers of flowers." "There is a great gulf between pancakes and truffles: an eternal, fixed abysmal cañon. It is like the chasm between beds and hammocks." [It is only three pages later that we learn that the chapter is about just that, hammocks, i.e. about the value of sleeping outdoors amid the nightly sounds and rhythms.] A powerful sense of strangeness pervades these books. Let me illustrate this with three quotations: "If an Indian had appeared down the trail, hopping endlessly and gripping the trunks, gazing upward with staring eyes, I should not have thought it more strange than the next thing that really happened." "Like a rainbow before breakfast, a sloth is a surprise, an unexpected fellow breather of the air of our planet. No one could prophesy a sloth." "Where a moment before was an unbroken translucent surface, were now thir- teen strange beings who had appeared from the depths, and were mumbling oxygen with trembling lips." Ernest Hemingway must surely have learned some of his pacing and punch from William Beebe. References Bancroft, E. 1769. An Essay on the Natural History of Guiana. London: T. Beckert & P.A. de Hondt 402 pp. Beebe, W. 1949. High Jungle. New York: Duell, Sloan & Pearce 379 pp. Beebe, W., G.I. Hartley & P.G. Howes 1917. Tropical Wild Life in British Guiana. New York: New York Zoological Soc. 504 pp. Gould, C.G. 2004. The Remarkable Life of William Beebe. Washington: Shearwater 358 pp. Hingston, R.W.G. 1932. A Naturalist in the Guiana Forest. London: Edward Arnold 384 pp. Rodway, J. 1894. In the Guiana Forest. London: T. Fisher Unwin 242 pp. Welker, R.H. 1975. Natural Man: The Life of William Beebe. Bloomington: Indiana Univ.
  9. 9. Volume 2 Issue 4 Page 9 WHAT’S HAPPENING @ ET Thanks from ET Volunteers needed! Scrip J Persons who are interested in helping with cataloguing and Jaric Environment Safety & Health Services Ltd. filing of ET’s educational, research and operational material Funding received from Methanex and UNDP/GEF and archiving. Environment TOBAGO t-shirts now available!!! Type: Polos Type: Lady’s tees Size: Small, Medium & Large Size: Small & Medium Price: TT$150.00 Price: TT$100.00 Colours: Kelly green, royal Colours: Lime green, red and blue, red, gold and ash grey black Description: ET logo embroi- Description: ET logo printed dered on left breast, spon- on front and sponsor logo at sor’s logo printed on the the back centre back. Type: Regular tees Size: Small, Medium & Large Price: TT$100.00 Colours: Kelly green, red, black, navy blue, ash, purple, royal blue and black forest Description: ET logo printed on front and sponsor logos on sleeves at the back centre Orders can be made through the office. New Members Environment TOBAGO Environ- With a membership of 388 worldwide, ET welcomes the following mental and Services Map of members: Tobago Deborah Lamkin- Tobago McKerby Reid- Tobago Melisa Moore- Tobago Bryan Bain- Tobago They are excellent and will be published Hazel Bernard- Tobago Rudy Melville- Tobago every two years. Published in January 2008. Re- Misa Nurse Francis- Tobago Andra Bovell- Tobago quests for these maps can be made to ET office. Buchschacher Ueli- Switzerland Angela Fries- Mahabir- Switzerland Yvette Riesen- Switzerland .
  10. 10. Page 10 Environment TOBAGO newsletter READERS’ FORUM Office: 11 Cuyler Street Dear ET Newsletter Readers, Scarborough, Tobago, W.I. We want to hear from YOU! Comments may be edited for length and clarity. Mailing address: P.O. Box 503, Send your comments to: jo_annesewlal@yahoo.com Scarborough, or envirtob@tstt.net.tt Tobago, W.I. Phone: 1-868-660-7462 Fax: 1-868-660-7467 GUIDELINES TO CONTRIBUTORS E-mail: envirtob@tstt.net.tt Articles on the natural history and environment are welcome especially those on Trinidad and Tobago. Articles should not exceed approximately 1200 words (2 pages) and the editors reserve the right to edit the length. Images should be submitted as separate files. Submit material to any of the following: 1) jo_annesewlal@yahoo.com 2) envirtob@tstt.net.tt Deadline for submission of material for the 1st Quarter 2009 issue of We are on the web the Bulletin is March 10th, 2009. http://www.Environmenttobago.net EMAIL ________________________________________________